High-contrast imaging instruments need extreme wavefront control to directly image exoplanets. This requires highly sensitive wavefront sensors which optimally make use of the available photons to sense the wavefront. Here, we propose to numerically optimize Fourier-filtering wavefront sensors using automatic differentiation. First, we optimize the sensitivity of the wavefront sensor for different apertures and wavefront distributions. We find sensors that are more sensitive than currently used sensors and close to the theoretical limit, under the assumption of monochromatic light. Subsequently, we directly minimize the residual wavefront error by jointly optimizing the sensing and reconstruction. This is done by connecting differentiable models of the wavefront sensor and reconstructor and alternatingly improving them using a gradient-based optimizer. We also allow for nonlinearities in the wavefront reconstruction using Convolutional Neural Networks, which extends the design space of the wavefront sensor. Our results show that optimization can lead to wavefront sensors that have improved performance over currently used wavefront sensors. The proposed approach is flexible, and can in principle be used for any wavefront sensor architecture with free design parameters.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers