Severe blood pressure changes are well known in hemodialysis. Detection and prediction of these are important for the well-being of the patient and for optimizing treatment. New noninvasive methods for this purpose are required. The pulse wave transit time technique is an indirect estimation of blood pressure, and our intention is to investigate whether this technique is applicable for hemodialysis treatment. A measurement setup utilizing lower body negative pressure and isometric contraction was used to simulate dialysis-related blood pressure changes in normal test subjects. Systolic blood pressure levels were compared to different pulse wave transit times, including and excluding the cardiac preejection period. Based on the results of these investigations, a pulse wave transit time technique adapted for dialysis treatment was developed and tried out on patients. To determine systolic blood pressure in the normal group, the total pulse wave transit time was found most suitable (including the cardiac preejection period). Correlation coefficients were r = 0.80 +/- 0.06 (mean +/- SD) overall and r = 0.81 +/- 0.16 and r = 0.09 +/- 0.62 for the hypotension and hypertension phases, respectively. When applying the adapted technique in dialysis patients, large blood pressure variations could easily be detected when present. Pulse wave transit time is correlated to systolic blood pressure within the acceptable range for a trend-indicating system. The method's applicability for dialysis treatment requires further studies. The results indicate that large sudden pressure drops, like those seen in sudden hypovolemia, can be detected.
Abstract-Heart murmurs are often the first signs of pathological changes of the heart valves, and they are usually found during auscultation in the primary health care. Distinguishing a pathological murmur from a physiological murmur is however difficult, why an ''intelligent stethoscope'' with decision support abilities would be of great value. Phonocardiographic signals were acquired from 36 patients with aortic valve stenosis, mitral insufficiency or physiological murmurs, and the data were analyzed with the aim to find a suitable feature subset for automatic classification of heart murmurs. Techniques such as Shannon energy, wavelets, fractal dimensions and recurrence quantification analysis were used to extract 207 features. 157 of these features have not previously been used in heart murmur classification. A multi-domain subset consisting of 14, both old and new, features was derived using PudilÕs sequential floating forward selection (SFFS) method. This subset was compared with several single domain feature sets. Using neural network classification, the selected multi-domain subset gave the best results; 86% correct classifications compared to 68% for the first runner-up. In conclusion, the derived feature set was superior to the comparative sets, and seems rather robust to noisy data.
The MiRA theory builds on well-established driver attention theories. It goes beyond available driver distraction definitions by first defining what a driver needs to be attentive to, being free from hindsight bias, and allowing the driver to adapt to the current demands of the traffic situation through satisficing and self-pacing. MiRA has the potential to provide the stepping stone for unbiased and operationalizable inattention detection and classification.
Electronic billboards have an effect on gaze behavior by attracting more and longer glances than regular traffic signs. Whether the electronic billboards attract too much attention and constitute a traffic safety hazard cannot be answered conclusively based on the present data.
Driver sleepiness is a contributing factor in many road fatalities. A long-standing goal in driver state research has therefore been to develop a robust sleepiness detection system. It has been suggested that various heart rate variability (HRV) metrics can be used for driver sleepiness classification. However, since heart rate is modulated not only by sleepiness but also by several other time-varying intra-individual factors such as posture, distress, boredom and relaxation, it is relevant to highlight not only the possibilities but also the difficulties involved in HRV-based driver sleepiness classification. This paper investigates the reliability of HRV as a standalone feature for driver sleepiness detection in a realistic setting. Data from three real-road driving studies were used, including 86 drivers in both alert and sleep-deprived conditions. Subjective ratings based on the Karolinska sleepiness scale (KSS) were used as ground truth when training four binary classifiers (k-nearest neighbours, support vector machine, AdaBoost, and random forest). The best performance was achieved with the random forest classifier with an accuracy of 85%. However, the accuracy dropped to 64% for three-class classification and to 44% for subject-independent, leave-one-participant-out classification. The worst results were obtained in the severely sleepy class. The results show that in realistic driving conditions, subject-independent sleepiness classification based on HRV is poor. The conclusion is that more work is needed to control for the many confounding factors that also influence HRV before it can be used as input to a driver sleepiness detection system.
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