BACKGROUND Increased secretion of growth hormone leads to gigantism in children and acromegaly in adults; the genetic causes of gigantism and acromegaly are poorly understood. METHODS We performed clinical and genetic studies of samples obtained from 43 patients with gigantism and then sequenced an implicated gene in samples from 248 patients with acromegaly. RESULTS We observed microduplication on chromosome Xq26.3 in samples from 13 patients with gigantism; of these samples, 4 were obtained from members of two unrelated kindreds, and 9 were from patients with sporadic cases. All the patients had disease onset during early childhood. Of the patients with gigantism who did not carry an Xq26.3 microduplication, none presented before the age of 5 years. Genomic characterization of the Xq26.3 region suggests that the microduplications are generated during chromosome replication and that they contain four protein-coding genes. Only one of these genes, GPR101, which encodes a G-protein–coupled receptor, was overexpressed in patients’ pituitary lesions. We identified a recurrent GPR101 mutation (p.E308D) in 11 of 248 patients with acromegaly, with the mutation found mostly in tumors. When the mutation was transfected into rat GH3 cells, it led to increased release of growth hormone and proliferation of growth hormone–producing cells. CONCLUSIONS We describe a pediatric disorder (which we have termed X-linked acrogigantism [X-LAG]) that is caused by an Xq26.3 genomic duplication and is characterized by early-onset gigantism resulting from an excess of growth hormone. Duplication of GPR101 probably causes X-LAG. We also found a recurrent mutation in GPR101 in some adults with acromegaly. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and others.)
AIPmut pituitary adenomas have clinical features that may negatively impact treatment efficacy. Predisposition for aggressive disease in young patients, often in a familial setting, suggests that earlier diagnosis of AIPmut pituitary adenomas may have clinical utility.
Highlights d Molecular classes of PitNETs are identified by integrated pangenomic analyses d PitNETs molecular classification mainly reflects pituitary lineage, driven by PIT1 d Gonadotroph signatures are found in some corticotroph and somatotroph PitNETs d USP8-mutated corticotroph PitNETs correspond to a group with limited aggressiveness
X-linked acro-gigantism (X-LAG) is a new syndrome of pituitary gigantism, caused by microduplications on chromosome Xq26.3, encompassing the gene GPR101, which is highly upregulated in pituitary tumors. We conducted this study to explore the clinical, radiological and hormonal phenotype and responses to therapy in patients with X-LAG syndrome. The study included 18 patients (13 sporadic) with X-LAG and a microduplication in chromosome Xq26.3. All sporadic cases had unique duplications and the inheritance pattern in 2 families was dominant with all Xq26.3 duplication carriers being affected. Patients began to grow rapidly as early as 2–3 months of age (median 12 months). At diagnosis (median delay 27 months), patients had a median height and weight SDS score of >+3.9 SDS. Apart from the increased overall body size, the children had acromegalic symptoms including acral enlargement and facial coarsening. More than a third of cases had increased appetite. Patients had marked hypersecretion of GH/IGF-1 and prolactin, usually due to a pituitary macroadenoma or hyperplasia. Primary neurosurgical control was achieved with extensive anterior pituitary resection but postoperative hypopituitarism was frequent. Control with somatostatin analogs was not readily achieved despite moderate to high somatostatin receptor subtype-2 expression in tumor tissue. Postoperative adjuvant pegvisomant achieved control of IGF-1 all 5 cases in which it was employed. X-LAG is a new infant-onset gigantism syndrome that has a severe clinical phenotype leading to challenging disease management.
The classification of neoplasms of adenohypophysial cells is misleading because of the simplistic distinction between adenoma and carcinoma, based solely on metastatic spread and the poor reproducibility and predictive value of the definition of atypical adenomas based on the detection of mitoses or expression of Ki-67 or p53. In addition, the current classification of neoplasms of the anterior pituitary does not accurately reflect the clinical spectrum of behavior. Invasion and regrowth of proliferative lesions and persistence of hormone hypersecretion cause significant morbidity and mortality. We propose a new terminology, pituitary neuroendocrine tumor (PitNET), which is consistent with that used for other neuroendocrine neoplasms and which recognizes the highly variable impact of these tumors on patients.
The binding of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) with its ligands begins a sustained period of cellular activation and inflammatory signal amplification in different tissues and diseases. This binding could represent an as yet uninvestigated pathway of inflammatory reaction in the lung, where the presence of the receptor has been largely documented and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are produced by nonenzymatic glycation and oxidation of proteins and lipids, driven by smoke and pollutants exposure or inflammatory stress. We immunohistochemically assessed the expression of RAGE and of its major proinflammatory ligands, N-e-carboxy-methyl-lysine, S100B and S-100A12 in normal lung and in nonneoplastic lung disorders including smoke-related airway disease, granulomatous inflammation, postobstructive damage and usual interstitial pneumonia. In normal lung low expression of the receptor was observed in bronchiolar epithelia, type II pneumocytes, macrophages and some endothelia. S100A12 and S100B were expressed, respectively, in granulocytes and in dendritic cells. Carboxy-methyl-lysine was present in bronchiolar epithelia and macrophages. In all pathological conditions associated with inflammation and lung damage overexpression of both the receptor and of AGEs was observed in bronchiolar epithelia, type II alveolar pneumocytes, alveolar macrophages and endothelia. RAGE overexpression was more evident in epithelia associated with inflammatory cell aggregates. Fibroblasts in usual interstitial pneumonia expressed both the receptor and AGEs. The number of S100A12 and S100B immunoreactive inflammatory cells was variable. S100A12 was also expressed in mononuclear inflammatory cells and in activated epithelia. The activation of the inflammatory pathway controlled by the RAGE is not specific of a single lung disease, however, it may be relevant as a nonspecific pathway of sustained inflammation in lung tissue, and on this basis therapeutic approaches based on receptor blockage can be envisaged.
Objectives Only few retrospective studies have reported an efficacy rate of temozolomide (TMZ) in pituitary tumors (PT), all around 50%. However, the long-term survival of treated patients is rarely evaluated. We therefore aimed to describe the use of TMZ on PT in clinical practice and evaluate the long-term survival. Design Multicenter retrospective study by members of the French Society of Endocrinology. Methods Forty-three patients (14 women) treated with TMZ between 2006 and 2016 were included. Most tumors were corticotroph (n = 23) or lactotroph (n = 13), and 14 were carcinomas. Clinical/pathological characteristics of PT, as well as data from treatment evaluation and from the last follow-up were recorded. A partial response was considered as a decrease in the maximal tumor diameter by more than 30% and/or in the hormonal rate by more than 50% at the end of treatment. Results The median treatment duration was 6.5 cycles (range 2–24), using a standard regimen for most and combined radiotherapy for six. Twenty-two patients (51.2%) were considered as responders. Silent tumor at diagnosis was associated with a poor response. The median follow-up after the end of treatment was 16 months (0–72). Overall survival was significantly higher among responders (P = 0.002); however, ten patients relapsed 5 months (0–57) after the end of TMZ treatment, five in whom TMZ was reinitiated without success. Discussion Patients in our series showed a 51.2% response rate to TMZ, with an improved survival among responders despite frequent relapses. Our study highlights the high variability and lack of standardization of treatment protocols.
Adenohypophyseal tumors, which were recently renamed pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNET), are mostly benign, but may present various behaviors: invasive, “aggressive” and malignant with metastases. They are classified into seven morphofunctional types and three lineages: lactotroph, somatotroph and thyrotroph (PIT1 lineage), corticotroph (TPIT lineage) or gonadotroph (SF1 lineage), null cell or immunonegative tumor and plurihormonal tumors. The WHO 2017 classification suggested that subtypes, such as male lactotroph, silent corticotroph and Crooke cell, sparsely granulated somatotroph, and silent plurihormonal PIT1 positive tumors, should be considered as “high risk” tumors. However, the prognostic impact of these subtypes and of each morphologic type remains controversial. In contrast, the French five-tiered classification, taking into account the invasion, the immuno-histochemical (IHC) type, and the proliferative markers (Ki-67 index, mitotic count, p53 positivity), has a prognostic value validated by statistical analysis in 4 independent cohorts. A standardized report for the diagnosis of pituitary tumors, integrating all these parameters, has been proposed by the European Pituitary Pathology Group (EPPG). In 2020, the pituitary pathologist must be considered as a member of the multidisciplinary pituitary team. The pathological diagnosis may help the clinician to adapt the post-operative management, including appropriate follow-up and early recognition and treatment of potentially aggressive forms.
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