Recent in vitro findings indicate that cytokines represent an important pathway of connective tissue destruction in human periodontitis. The biological effects of interleukin‐1β (IL‐1β) and interleukin‐8 (IL‐8) are relevant in this regard, and the objective of this study was to compare the levels of these molecules in gingival crevicular fluids (GCF) from patients with adult periodontitis (experimental group) and from individuals with clinically healthy gingiva (control group). GCF was collected for 30 seconds using a periopaper strip and the volume of the sample determined. Following elution of the fluid, assays for IL‐1β and IL‐8 were carried out by ELISA. The concentrations (ng/ml) of cytokines were calculated in the original volume of GCF on each strip. The total amounts (pg/site) of cytokines were expressed as the concentrations multiplied by volumes of GCF. The total amounts of IL‐1β and IL‐8 of the experimental group were significantly higher than the control group. The total amounts of both cytokines were markedly reduced following phase 1 periodontal treatment. The clinical parameters were positively related to the total amounts of IL‐1β and IL‐8. IL‐1β concentrations and total amounts were also positively related to IL‐8 suggesting that the GCF IL‐8 levels are influenced by local IL‐1β activities. These data indicate that the total amounts of IL‐1β and IL‐8 exhibited dynamic changes upon severity of periodontal disease. The levels of IL‐1β and IL‐8 in GCF are valuable in detecting the inflammation of periodontal tissue. J Periodontol 1995;66:852–859.
Over a 10-year period (1982-1991); a total of 150 patients divided into two groups with varying degrees of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) were treated by either medical or surgical therapies. Medical treatment involved (a) conservative oral administration of vitamin B-complex, buflomedial hydrochloride and topical triamcinolone acetonide 0.1%, or (b) conventional submucosal injections of a combination of dexamethasone and hyaluronidase, or (c) a combination of both (a) and (b). The surgical group was treated by the excision of fibrotic tissues and covering the defect with split-thickness skin, fresh human amnion, or buccal fat pad (BFP) grafts. Treatment was chosen according to the stage of clinical progression to gain maximal interincisal distance (ID). The cases were followed up by monthly examinations for at least two years, or when possible even longer. A combination of (a) and (b) medical treatment was satisfactory in cases of mild impairment (ID> 20 mm) but in the long term it led to symptomatic relief only. Surgical therapy, on the other hand, when accepted by the patients, led to a significant improvement of trismus in cases of severe limitation (ID < 20 mm). Following this strategy, an additional ID increase was observed in all patients. BFP grafting was particularly successful in diminishing scarring after two years as compared with the other two grafts. Together with a cessation of the betel quid chewing habit before and after therapy, these treatment regimens combined with daily mouth opening exercises were found to be necessary to manage OSF cases in early and advanced stages of progression.
The imbalance between the levels of myeloperoxidase/IL-1beta and glutathione peroxidase/lactoferrin could result in tissue damage of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in periodontitis which is initiated and perpetuated by the chronic insults of periodontopathogens.
The antimicrobial activity of honokiol and magnolol, the main constituents of Magnolia officinalis was investigated. The antimicrobial activity was assayed by the agar dilution method using brain heart infusion medium and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined for each compound using a twofold serial dilution assay. The results showed that honokiol and magnolol have a marked antimicrobial effect (MIC = 25 microg/mL) against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis, but did not show antimicrobial activity (MIC > or = 100 microg/mL) for Shigella flexneii, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our results indicate that honokiol and magnolol, although less potent than tetracycline, show a significant antimicrobial activity for periodontal pathogens. Hence we suggest that honokiol and magnolol might have the potential to be an adjunct in the treatment of periodontitis.
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