In this paper, the gravitational deflection of a relativistic massive neutral particle in the Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime is studied via the Rindler–Ishak method in the weak-field limit. When the initial velocity $$v_0$$
of the particle tends to the speed of light, the result is consistent with that obtained in the previous work for the light-bending case. Our result is reduced to the Schwarzschild deflection angle of massive particles up to the second order, if the contributions from the cosmological constant $$\varLambda $$
are dropped. The observable correctional effects due to the deviation of $$v_0$$
from light speed on the $$\varLambda $$
-induced contributions to the deflection angle of light are also analyzed.
In this paper, speed selection of the time periodic traveling waves for
a three species time-periodic Lotka-Volterra competition system is
studied via the upper-lower solution method as well as the comparison
principle. Through constructing specific types of upper and lower
solutions to the system, the speed selection of the minimal wave speed
can be determined under some sets of sufficient conditions composed of
the parameters in the system.
<p style='text-indent:20px;'>Competition stems from the fact that resources are limited. When multiple competitive species are involved with spatial diffusion, the dynamics becomes even complex and challenging. In this paper, we investigate the invasive speed to a diffusive three species competition system of Lotka-Volterra type. We first show that multiple species share a common spreading speed when initial data are compactly supported. By transforming the competitive system into a cooperative system, the determinacy of the invasive speed is studied by the upper-lower solution method. In our work, for linearly predicting the invasive speed, we concentrate on finding upper solutions only, and don't care about the existence of lower solutions. Similarly, for nonlinear selection of the spreading speed, we focus only on the construction of lower solutions with fast decay rate. This greatly develops and simplifies the ideas of past references in this topic.</p>
The objective of this paper is to extend some results of pioneers for the nonlinear equationmt=(1/2)(1/mk)xxx−(1/2)(1/mk)xintroduced by Qiao. The equivalent relationship of the traveling wave solutions between the integrable equation and the generalized KdV equation is revealed. Moreover, whenk=−(p/q) (p≠qandp,q∈ℤ+), we obtain some explicit traveling wave solutions by the bifurcation method of dynamical systems.
This paper is concerned with the smooth and nonsmooth soliton solutions of the Novikov equation based on the bifurcation method of dynamical systems. Two interesting results are highlighted. First, the new Hamiltonian function is established in the case of ϕ 2 < c while ϕ 2 > c is discussed in Li (Int J Bifurcat Chaos 24(3):1450037 2014). Second, we prove that the corresponding traveling wave system of the Novikov equation exists new smooth and nonsmooth soliton solutions.
We study the bifurcations of nonlinear waves for the generalized Drinfel’d-Sokolov systemut+(vm)x=0,vt+a(vn)xxx+buxv+cuvx=0calledD(m,n)system. We reveal some interesting bifurcation phenomena as follows. (1) ForD(2,1)system, the fractional solitary waves can be bifurcated from the trigonometric periodic waves and the elliptic periodic waves, and the kink waves can be bifurcated from the solitary waves and the singular waves. (2) ForD(1,2)system, the compactons can be bifurcated from the solitary waves, and the peakons can be bifurcated from the solitary waves and the singular cusp waves. (3) ForD(2,2)system, the solitary waves can be bifurcated from the smooth periodic waves and the singular periodic waves.
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