42 ± 0.68%, 5.96 ± 2.51%, 5.13 ± 2.38 %, 8.18 ± 1.11% and 8.51 ± 1.94% for poliovirus type 2; 8.30 ± 4.24%; 13.33 ± 4.66% and 24.27 ± 2.18% for simian rotavirus SA11, at 0.312, 0.625 and 1.250 mM, respectively, when measured by the MTT assay.
Aims: To assess the presence of human adenovirus (HAdV), hepatitis A (HAV) virus and rotavirus A (RV‐A) in environmental samples from the Southern region of Brazil and to provide viral contamination data for further epidemiological studies and governmental actions. Methods and Results: Water samples from various sources (seawater, lagoon brackish water, urban wastewater, drinking water sources‐with and without chlorination and water derived from a polluted creek) and oysters of two growing areas were analysed by enzymatic amplification (nested PCR and RT‐PCR), quantification of HAdV genome (qPCR) and viral viability assay by integrated cell culture‐PCR (ICC‐PCR). From June 2007 to May 2008 in a total of 84 water samples, 54 (64·2%) were positive for HAdV, 16 (19%) for RV‐A and 7 (8·3%) for HAV. Viability assays showed nonpositive samples for HAV; though, infectious viruses were confirmed for RV‐A (12·5%) and HAdV (88·8%). Oyster samples by PCR were positive for HAdV (87·5%) and RV‐A (8·3%), but none for HAV. Quantitative PCR in oysters showed means loads in genomic copies (gc) of 9·1 × 104 gc g−1 (oyster farm south) and 1·5 × 105 gc g−1 (oyster farm north) and in waters ranging from 2·16 × 106 (lagoon water) to 1·33 × 107 gc l−1 (untreated drinking water). Conclusions: This study has shown a widespread distribution of the analysed viruses in this particular region with high loads of HAdV in the environment which suggests the relevance of evaluating these viruses as positive indicators of viral contamination of water. Significance and Impact of the Study: The environmental approach in this study provides data concerning the prevalence, viability and quantification of enteric viruses in environmental waters and oysters in the South region of Brazil and has indicated that their presence might pose a risk to population in contact with the environmental samples searched.
The prevalence and potential zoonotic transmission of group C rotavirus (RVC) were examined by testing fecal samples collected from children during a longitudinal study that was carried out in the outskirts of Belém, Brazil, from December 1982 to March 1986. The study involved a group of 30 children who were followed from birth to 3 years. Of the 77 samples tested from 29 children, 5 (6.5%) were positive for human and 3 (4%) for porcine RVC by using nested PCR assay with primers specific for VP6 gene of human or porcine RVC and by Southern hybridization using a probe specific for VP6 gene of both human and porcine RVC. In addition, a total of 59 fecal specimens from the 30th child were tested, 1 (1.7%) and 14 (23.7%) were positive for human and porcine RVC, respectively. Partial nucleotide sequences of VP6 gene demonstrated that the six human strains detected in Brazil were homologous with other human RVC, and 14 of the 17 porcine RVC strains examined showed a complete homology among themselves but differed slightly from the porcine Cowden strain, suggesting that a single porcine RVC strain was circulating in Belém. This study is the first to provide evidence for transmission of RVC from swine to human. They also indicate that both human and porcine RVC were endemic in Belém.
Cardiac glycosides, known ligands of the sodium pump, are widely used in the treatment of heart failure, such as digoxin and digitoxin. Besides this important activity, other biological activities, such as the antiviral activity, have been described for this group. HSV are responsible for many infections of oral, ocular and genital regions. Treatment with nucleoside analogs such as acyclovir is effective in most cases; however drug-resistance may arise due to prolonged treatment mainly in immunocompromised individuals. In this study, an antiherpes screening was performed with 65 cardenolide derivatives obtained from different sources, and one natural cardenolide, glucoevatromonoside, inhibited HSV-1 and HSV-2 replication at very low concentrations. This cardenolide showed viral inhibitory effects if added up to 12h p.i. and these effects appear to take place by the inhibition of viral proteins synthesis (ICP27, U(L)42, gB, gD), the blockage of virus release and the reduction of viral cell-to-cell spread. This compound also showed synergistic antiviral effects with acyclovir and anti-Na(+)K(+)ATPase activity, suggesting that cellular electrochemical gradient alterations might be involved in the mechanism of viral inhibition. These results suggest that cardenolides might be promising for future antiviral drug design.
The synthetic n-alkyl esters of gallic acid (GA), also known as gallates, especially propyl, octyl and dodecyl gallates, are widely employed as antioxidants by food and pharmaceutical industries. The inhibitory effects of GA and 15 gallates on Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) replication were investigated here. After a preliminary screening of these compounds, GA and pentyl gallate (PG) seemed to be the most active compounds against HSV-1 replication and their mode of action was characterized through a set of assays, which attempted to localize the step of the viral multiplication cycle where impairment occurred. The detected anti-HSV-1 activity was mediated by the inhibition of virus attachment to and penetration into cells, and by virucidal properties. Furthermore, an anti-HIV-1 activity was also found, to different degrees. In summary, our results suggest that both compounds could be regarded as promising candidates for the development of topical anti-HSV-1 agents, and further studies concerning the anti-HIV-1 activity of this group of molecules are merited.Key words: antiviral -HSV-1 -HIV-1 -gallic acid -pentyl gallate Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) is an enveloped DNA virus that causes one of the most common viral infections in humans, leading to a variety of diseases ranging from mild to severe and sometimes life-threatening (White & Fenner 1994, Whitley & Rozman 2001. Although several nucleoside analogues have been approved for clinical use, such as acyclovir, immunocompromised patients are at increased risk of severity and recurrent infections, since resistant strains have recently been observed (Brady & Bernstein 2004). Therefore, it is desirable to develop new antiviral agents in order to substitute or complement currently available drugs.The synthetic n-alkyl esters of gallic acid (GA), also known as gallates, especially propyl, octyl and dodecyl gallates, are widely employed as antioxidants by the food and pharmaceutical industries (van der Heijden et al. 1986, Kubo et al. 2002a. Besides the antioxidant activity, other biological activities have been described for this group of molecules, mainly anticancer mechanisms (Fiuza et al. 2004, Kitagawa et al. 2005, Frey et al. 2006, Veluri et al. 2006 as well as antibacterial and antifungal properties (Fujita & Kubo 2002, Kubo et al. 2002b, c, 2003, Stapleton et al. 2004). However, there are few reports about the antiviral activity of these compounds. In 1988, a study described the inhibition of HSV-1 and HSV-2 replication by methyl gallate (Kane et al. 1988). In 2002, as part of the screening of phenolic compounds against HIV-1 integrase, GA was found to be active (Ahn et al. 2002). More recently, several biological activities of a group of gallates were described by our research group, and various structure-activity relationships regarding their anti-HSV-1, antioxidant and genotoxic effects were proposed (Savi et al. 2005). Furthermore, the pronounced anti-HSV-1 activity of octyl gallate, and its inhibitory...
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a DNA-containing enveloped virus that causes common viral infections in humans worldwide leading to a variety of diseases. HSV-1 and HSV-2 can be distinguished on the basis of clinical manifestations (the former is more frequently associated with oral cold sores, while the later causes genital ulcers) and biochemical and serological examinations. In most cases, HSV infection is usually benign or asymptomatic in immunocompetent individuals; however, in patients with an immature or compromised immune system, the infection can be serious and sometimes life-threatening. 1,2) Several nucleoside analogues have been approved for clinical use. Among those, acyclovir is widely used for the systemic treatment of HSV infections. It is a highly selective antiviral agent because it is specifically phosphorylated by viral thymidine kinase in infected cells. However, acyclovir-resistant HSV infection in immunocompromised patients such as transplanted patients and patients with AIDS has recently been observed. Therefore, it is desirable to develop new anti-HSV agents in order to substitute or complement the antiviral drugs available. 3,4)The synthetic n-alkyl esters of gallic acid (GA), also known as gallates, especially propyl, octyl and dodecyl gallates, are widely employed as antioxidants by food and pharmaceutical industries. 5,6) Besides the antioxidant activity, other biological activities have been described for this group of molecules, mainly anticancer, 7-10) antibacterial and antifungal properties.  There are few reports about the antiviral activity of these compounds. In 1988, the potent inhibition of HSV-1 and HSV-2 by methyl gallate was described. 17) In 2000, as part of the screening of phenolic compounds against HIV-1 integrase, gallic acid was found to be active. 18)More recently, the anti-HSV activity of several gallates was described by our research group, which proposed various structure-activity relationships regarding the antiviral, antioxidant and genotoxic effects.19) Furthermore, the pronounced anti-HSV-1 activity of octyl gallate, and its inhibitory effect against RNA viruses were also recently described. 20,21) In the present study, the anti-HSV-2 activity of gallic acid and pentyl gallate was evaluated followed by the determination of the site of antiviral activity of these compounds. MATERIALS AND METHODSCompounds GA and pentyl gallate (PG) (Fig. 1) were synthesized as previously described.19) The compounds (50 mM) were dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, stored at Ϫ20°C protected from light, and further diluted in culture medium prior to use.Cells and Virus African green monkey kidney cells (GMK AH1) were grown in Eagle's minimum essential medium (EMEM, Gibco BRL, Grand Island, NY, U.S.A.) supplemented with 2% fetal calf serum (FSC), 0.05% primaton substance (Kraft Inc., Norwich, CT, U.S.A.), 100 U/ml Göteborg, Sweden. Received November 23, 2007; accepted February 5, 2008; published online February 20, 2008 The synthetic n-alkyl esters of galli...
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