BackgroundSevere dengue virus (DENV) disease is associated with extensive immune activation, characterized by a cytokine storm. Previously, elevated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels in dengue were found to correlate with clinical disease severity. In the present cross-sectional study we identified markers of microbial translocation and immune activation, which are associated with severe manifestations of DENV infection.MethodsSerum samples from DENV-infected patients were collected during the outbreak in 2010 in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Levels of LPS, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), soluble CD14 (sCD14) and IgM and IgG endotoxin core antibodies were determined by ELISA. Thirty cytokines were quantified using a multiplex luminex system. Patients were classified according to the 2009 WHO classification and the occurrence of plasma leakage/shock and hemorrhage. Moreover, a (non-supervised) cluster analysis based on the expression of the quantified cytokines was applied to identify groups of patients with similar cytokine profiles. Markers of microbial translocation were linked to groups with similar clinical disease severity and clusters with similar cytokine profiles.ResultsCluster analysis indicated that LPS levels were significantly increased in patients with a profound pro-inflammatory cytokine profile. LBP and sCD14 showed significantly increased levels in patients with severe disease in the clinical classification and in patients with severe inflammation in the cluster analysis. With both the clinical classification and the cluster analysis, levels of IL-6, IL-8, sIL-2R, MCP-1, RANTES, HGF, G-CSF and EGF were associated with severe disease.ConclusionsThe present study provides evidence that both microbial translocation and extensive immune activation occur during severe DENV infection and may play an important role in the pathogenesis.
Dengue viruses (DENV) serotypes 1, 2, and 3 have been causing yearly outbreaks in Brazil. In this study, we report the re-introduction of DENV2 in the coast of São Paulo State. Partial envelope viral genes were sequenced from eighteen patients with dengue fever during the 2010 epidemic. Phylogenetic analysis showed this strain belongs to the American/Asian genotype and was closely related to the virus that circulated in Rio de Janeiro in 2007 and 2008. The phylogeny also showed no clustering by clinical presentation, suggesting that the disease severity could not be explained by distinct variants or genotypes. The time of the most recent common ancestor of American/Asian genotype and the São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro (SP/RJ) monophyletic cluster was estimated to be around 40 and 10 years, respectively. Since this virus was first identified in Brazil in 2007, we suggest that it was already circulating in the country before causing the first documented outbreak. This is the first description of the 2010 outbreak in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and should contribute to efforts to control and monitor the spread of DENVs in endemic areas.
In 2010, a large outbreak of dengue occurred in Santos, Brazil. The detection of the NS1 antigen was used for diagnosis in addition to the detection of IgG, IgM, and RNA. A large number of NS1 false-negative results were obtained. A total of 379 RNA-positive samples were selected for thorough evaluation. NS1 was reactive in 37.7% of cases. Most of the cases were characterized as a secondary infection by dengue 2 virus. Sequencing of NS1 positive and negative isolates did not reveal any mutation that could justify the diagnostic failure. Use of existing NS1 tests in the Brazilian population may present a low negative predictive value, and they should be used with caution, preferentially after performing a validation with samples freshly obtained during the ongoing epidemic.
Dengue fever induces a robust immune response, including massive T cell activation. The level of T cell activation may, however, be associated with more severe disease. In this study, we explored the level of CD8+ T lymphocyte activation in the first six days after onset of symptoms during a DENV2 outbreak in early 2010 on the coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. Using flow cytometry we detected a progressive increase in the percentage of CD8+ T cells in 74 dengue fever cases. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 30 cases were thawed and evaluated using expanded phenotyping. The expansion of the CD8+ T cells was coupled with increased Ki67 expression. Cell activation was observed later in the course of disease, as determined by the expression of the activation markers CD38 and HLA-DR. This increased CD8+ T lymphocyte activation was observed in all memory subsets, but was more pronounced in the effector memory subset, as defined by higher CD38 expression. Our results show that most CD8+ T cell subsets are expanded during DENV2 infection and that the effector memory subset is the predominantly affected sub population.
J. E. Levi et al.
471consisted of 2464 subjects under routine screening. Cervical samples were collected using SurePath liquid cytology (LBC) device, and split into aliquots which were submitted to molecular testing by Hybrid Capture and cobas HPV. Colposcopy and biopsies were made according to the standard guidelines, directed by cytological diagnosis. Results: Prevalence of HSIL was 5.97% and 0.7% in Group A and B respectively. High-Risk HPV DNA was found in about 9% of group B women, while in group A this frequency was 24%. Having CIN3+ as the study end-point, the negative predictive values for molecular methods were above 99.8%. All "in-situ" and invasive cervical carcinomas were detected by both HPV nucleic acid assays. Conclusion: Use of HPV DNA testing was feasible and highly sensitive in cancer screening settings of Brazil.
In the Brazilian HIV-1 epidemic, subtypes B, C, and F1 are cocirculating in the population. Sequences of the partial pol gene from 463 HIV-1-infected patients were obtained from plasma samples and viral subtype was characterized. BF recombinants were found in 8% of the samples. Fifteen different patterns were observed. A CRF28_BF and CRF29_BF structure was found in 29.7% of the samples, CRF12_BF in 13.5%, and CRF39_BF in 2.7%. Two other patterns were identified in each of three samples. These findings could indicate a new CRF description, but to determine this a full length study is required.
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