Introduction: Mushroom species have been used for medical purposes and as nutrients since the old times. The present study aimed to determine phenolic content, antioxidant activity and heavy metal content of Cyclocybe cylindracea (DC.) Vizzini & Angelini mushroom. Materials and Methods: Phenolic contents were screened with HPLC devices. TAS, TOS and OSI values were determined using Rel Assay kits. Heavy metal content were determined with atomic absorption method using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Result and Discussion: Gallic acid, hesperidin, catechin, syringic acid and hydroxybenzoic acid were detected in the mushroom. It was determined that the heavy metal content in C. cylindracea were generally at optimal levels and the TOS value of mushroom was high. Conclusion: C. cylindracea could be consumed as a good antioxidant source as long as it is obtained from safe areas.
The present study aimed to determine the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI) and antimicrobial activities of Ganoderma lucidum mushroom collected in Oguzeli region (Gaziantep province, Turkey). Rel Assay Diagnostics kits were used to determine TAS, TOS and OSI levels. Antimicrobial activity was determined using 9 different bacteria and fungi (Staphylococcus aureus, S. aureus MRSA, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Candida albicans, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata) using modified agar dilution method. The study findings demonstrated that G. lucidum had high antioxidant potential. Antimicrobial activity of the mushroom was also found to be normal. Thus, the consumption of G. lucidum as a natural source of antioxidants and an antimicrobial resource could be suggested.
Özet: İnsanlar yüzyıllardır mantarları doğrudan doğal ortamlarından elde etme yoluna gitmiş ve farklı amaçlarla kullanmıştır. İnsanların doğadan temin ettikleri mantarların faydalarının ve zararlarının tespiti insan sağlığı açısından önemlidir. Bu nedenle bu çalışmada, halk arasında şemsiye mantarı olarak bilinen ve yaygın olarak tüketilen Macrolepiota procera (Scop.) Singer mantarının Balıkesir (Kazdağı Milli Parkı) ve Antalya (Akseki) illerinden toplanan örneklerinin TAS (Toplam Antioksidan Seviyesi), TOS (Toplam Oksidan Seviyesi) seviyeleri ile mantar ve toprak örneklerinin ağır metal içeriklerinin belirlenmesi ve kıyaslanması amaçlanmaktadır. Yapılan çalışmalar sonucunda Akseki'den toplanan mantar örneklerinde OSİ (TOS/TASx10) değerinin 0.367, Kazdağı'ndan toplanan örneklerde ise 0.235 olarak belirlenmiştir. Ağır metal seviyelerinin Akseki'den toplanan örneklerde daha fazla olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Kazdağı Milli Parkından toplanan örneklerin daha sağlıklı olduğu görülmektedir. Ayrıca Kazdağı'nda mantarların yetişmesi için daha az oksidatif stresin olduğu ve buna bağlı olarak daha uygun bir ortam olduğu söylenebilir. Abstract: For centuries, people have sought to obtain mushrooms directly from the natural environment and used for different purposes. People has been examining the pros and the cons of consuming mushrooms for human health. For instance, Macrolepiota procera (Scop.) Singer, also known as parasol mushrooms, which are widely consumed. Here, we have opted these mushrooms as samples to compare and contrast the status and, the heavy metal content in TAS (Total Antioxidant Status) and, TOS (Total Oxidant Status ). These mushroom samples and soil samples are collected from Balıkesir (Kazdağı National Park) and Antalya (Akseki) provinces. As a result of our findings, OSİ of fungal samples 0.367 collected from Akseki, while is determined to be 0.235 in samples collected from Kazdagi. Heavy metal levels has been found to be more in samples collected from Akseki. In contrast to the samples collected from the Kazdağı National Park, it is considered to be more healthy. Also to be less oxidative stress for the growth of fungi and said that consequently a more appropriate environment in Kazdaği. Determination of Heavy Metal Content and Oxidative Stress Status of
It is possible to classify mushrooms as edible, inedible and poisonous. The present study aimed to determine the antioxidant potential of Gyrodon lividus an edible mushroom species. Thus, total antioxidant status (TAS) and total oxidant status (TOS) of mushroom ethanol extracts were determined and oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated based on TAS and TOS findings. Based on the study findings, the TAS value was 2.077±0.087, TOS value was 13.465±0.213 and OSI level was 0.651±0.037. Thus, it was suggested that the mushroom had antioxidant potential, however G. lividus collected in Burdur province should be consumed with care due to the high oxidative stress levels.
attention of mankind and the methods of using mushrooms have been investigated. Mushrooms have been used as nutrients by many communities due to their taste and nutritional content. The ancient Romans called "the food of the gods" and the first Egyptians called the "gifts from God of Osiris" and Chinese called it "the elixir of life". 2 In the history of humanity, mushrooms have been consumed as food, especially during the rainy season. Approximately 1000 species of mushrooms are classified as edible worldwide. 3 Mushrooms are known as healthy foods throughout the world with proteins, vitamins, minerals, chitin, essential amino acids as well as low fat and calories. 4 The nutritional value of mushroom is comparable to foodstuffs such as corn, soybeans or beans. They are especially important foods with the basic amino acids they contain. Within the mushrooms, there are proteins at levels ranging from 5-49% of dry weight. In addition to protein, dietary fibers, minerals such as potassium, phosphorus iron, and vitamins and carbohydrates. 4 Mushrooms, which serve as a good source of food for human beings for centuries, have high nutritional value due to the vitamins and minerals they contain. In a study on an edible mushroom species, it was found that 88-90% water, 3-8% protein, 0-3% fat, 4-9% carbohydrate, 1-2% ash (calcium, phosphorus, iron, copper, chlorine, sodium, zinc, manganese and bromine) in trace amounts; B vitamins A and B complex vitamins B1 (Thiamin), B2 (Rhiboflavin), B3 (pantetonic acid), B5 (Nicotinic acid), vitamins. 5 Mushrooms are also rich in vitamin C and vitamin D. Mushroom contain 5-10 times more vitamin B3 than vegetables. The amount of fat is low in protein. It is also a food ingredient recommended for those who do not eat cholesterol because the fat content of mushroom is low. The richness of vitamins is known to have a calming and softening effect on the nervous system of humans. 6 Mushrooms are quite important natural sources used in alternative medicine. Today, in parallel with the increase in the number of diseases, alternative medicine tendency is gradually increasing due to insufficiency of synthetic medicines in these disadvantages. As an alternative to synthetic drugs, many natural resources such as plants, animals and mushrooms are used. 7,8 Nowadays, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and chronic diseases that can be caused by aging are gradually increasing. One of the main causes of this increase is thought to be oxidative stress. Antioxidant compounds function as protection mechanisms against damage that may occur in cell systems in living organisms, reduction of oxidative damage and damage. Mushrooms are quite good natural sources for these antioxidant compounds. 9 Mushroom contains several secondary metabolites, including 8. Yilmaz A, Yildiz S, Çelik A, et al. Determination of heavy metal and radioactivity in Agaricus campestris mushroom collected from kahramanmaraş and erzurum proviences.
In the present study, total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant capacity, oxidative stress index and antimicrobial activity in the cosmopolitan myxomycete species Physarum album (Bull.) Chevall. In this context, the sample ethanol, methanol and dichloromethane extracts were obtained with Soxhlet device. TAS, TOS and OSI were determined with Rel Assay kits. Antimicrobial activities were determined with modified agar dilution method on Staphylococcus aureus, S. aureus MRSA, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Candida albicans, C. krusei, and C. glabrata. The study findings demonstrated that P. album exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity against A. baumannii. It was also determined that P. album had antioxidant capacity. In conclusion, it was determined that P. album could be consumed as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial source.
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