Robots are becoming an integral component of our society and have great potential in being utilized as an educational technology. To promote a deeper understanding of the area, we present a review of the field of robots in education. Several prior ventures in the area are discussed (post-2000) with the help of classification criteria. The dissecting criteria include domain of the learning activity, location of the activity, the role of the robot, types of robots and types of robotic behaviour. Our overview shows that robots are primarily used to provide language, science or technology education and that a robot can take on the role of a tutor, tool or peer in the learning activity. We also present open questions and challenges in the field that emerged from the overview. The results from our overview are of interest to not only researchers in the field of human-robot interaction but also administration in educational institutes who wish to understand the wider implications of adopting robots in education.
Dance is a rich source of material for researchers interested in the integration of movement and cognition. The multiple aspects of embodied cognition involved in performing and perceiving dance have inspired scientists to use dance as a means for studying motor control, expertise, and action-perception links. The aim of this review is to present basic research on cognitive and neural processes implicated in the execution, expression, and observation of dance, and to bring into relief contemporary issues and open research questions. The review addresses six topics: 1) dancers' exemplary motor control, in terms of postural control, equilibrium maintenance, and stabilization; 2) how dancers' timing and on-line synchronization are influenced by attention demands and motor experience; 3) the critical roles played by sequence learning and memory; 4) how dancers make strategic use of visual and motor imagery; 5) the insights into the neural coupling between action and perception yielded through exploration of the brain architecture mediating dance observation; and 6) a neuroesthetics perspective that sheds new light on the way audiences perceive and evaluate dance expression. Current and emerging issues are presented regarding future directions that will facilitate the ongoing dialog between science and dance
Tinnitus and Its Effect on Working Memory and AttentionPurpose: In 2 experiments, the assumption that continual orienting to tinnitus uses cognitive resources was investigated. It was hypothesized that differences in performance of tinnitus and control groups would manifest during demanding or unfamiliar tasks that required strategic, controlled processing and that reduced performance was not related solely to levels of anxiety. Method: Nineteen participants with chronic, moderate tinnitus-matched with a control group for age, education, and verbal IQ-completed auditory verbal working-memory and visual divided-attention tasks, with task order counterbalanced across participants. Results: As hypothesized, reading span of the tinnitus group was significantly shorter than that of the control group (Task 1). In Task 2, the tinnitus group recorded slower reaction times and poorer accuracy in the most demanding dual task context. Covariate analyses revealed that differences in task performance were not attributable to anxiety scale scores. Conclusions: Complaints of the distracting effects of tinnitus have a basis in performance test outcomes. Future research should investigate effects of severe tinnitus and possible effects of hearing loss. At the level of theory development, results from this study suggest that tinnitus affects cognition to the extent that it reduces cognitive capacity needed to perform tasks that require voluntary, conscious, effortful, and strategic control.KEY WORDS: tinnitus, working memory, divided attention, anxiety, controlled processes, automatic processes T innitus, the perception of sound in the absence of corresponding auditory stimulation, is a widespread phenomenon. Estimates of the incidence of tinnitus in the general population vary widely. Epidemiological studies, in which an attempt is made to include every member of the designated population in the sample, are unique in that they can provide accurate estimates of the prevalence of tinnitus, free from the biasing effects of drawing samples from clinical populations or calling for volunteers. A recent epidemiological survey conducted on the aged population (55 years and over) of a township west of Sydney, Australia, revealed that 30% of this group had experienced at least one episode of tinnitus in the year preceding the interview. This study was composed of 26% of participants with normal threshold acuity and 35% of participants with a hearing loss (Sindhusake et al., 2003). Sindhusake et al. reviewed six recent population-based studies of tinnitus prevalence in the general population and arrived at a range of 13% to 18%.Chronic tinnitus can be accompanied by depression (Folmer, Griest, & Martin, 2001;Holgers, Erlandsson, & Barrenas, 2000), anxiety (G. Andersson & Vretblad, 2000;Folmer et al., 2001), insomnia (Folmer et al., 2001), problems with auditory perception (Hallam, Jakes, & Hinchcliffe, 1988;Tyler & Baker, 1983), and poor general and mental health. In extreme cases, intractable tinnitus may lead to suicide (Johnston & Walke...
The effect of chronic, severe tinnitus on two visual tasks was investigated. A general depletion of resources hypothesis states that overall performance would be impaired in a tinnitus group relative to a control group whereas a controlled processing hypothesis states that only tasks that are demanding, requiring strategic processes, are affected. Eleven participants who had experienced severe tinnitus for more than two years comprised the tinnitus group. A control group was matched for age and verbal IQ. Levels of anxiety, depression, and high frequency average hearing level were treated as covariates. Tasks consisted of the say-word (easy) and say-color (demanding) conditions of the Stroop task, a single (baseline) reaction time (RT) task, and dual tasks involving word reading or category naming while performing a concurrent RT task. Results supported the general depletion of resources hypothesis: RT of the tinnitus group was slower in both conditions of the Stroop task, and in the word reading and category naming conditions of the dual task. Differences were not attributable to high frequency average hearing level, anxiety, or depression.
Research in many fields has demonstrated the perceptual advantages of experiencing the world through multiple
Experimental investigations of cross-cultural music perception and cognition reported during the past decade are described. As globalization and Western music homogenize the world musical environment, it is imperative that diverse music and musical contexts are documented. Processes of music perception include grouping and segmentation, statistical learning and sensitivity to tonal and temporal hierarchies, and the development of tonal and temporal expectations. The interplay of auditory, visual, and motor modalities is discussed in light of synchronization and the way music moves via emotional response. Further research is needed to test deep-rooted psychological assumptions about music cognition with diverse materials and groups in dynamic contexts. Although empirical musicology provides keystones to unlock musical structures and organization, the psychological reality of those theorized structures for listeners and performers, and the broader implications for theories of music perception and cognition, awaits investigation.
Three experiments examined children's knowledge of harmony in Western music. The children heard a series of chords followed by a final, target chord. In Experiment 1, French 6- and 11-year-olds judged whether the target was sung with the vowel /i/ or /u/. In Experiment 2, Australian 8- and 11-year-olds judged whether the target was played on a piano or a trumpet. In Experiment 3, Canadian 8- and 11-year-olds judged whether the target sounded good (i.e. consonant) or bad (dissonant). The target was either the most stable chord in the established musical key (i.e. the tonic, based on do, the first note of the scale) or a less stable chord. Performance was faster (Experiments 1, 2 and 3) and more accurate (Experiment 3) when the target was the tonic chord. The findings confirm that children have implicit knowledge of syntactic functions that typify Western harmony.
This article addresses the learnability of auditory icons, that is, environmental sounds that refer either directly or indirectly to meaningful events. Direct relations use the sound made by the target event whereas indirect relations substitute a surrogate for the target. Across 3 experiments, different indirect relations (ecological, in which target and surrogate coexist in the world; metaphorical, in which target and surrogate have similar appearance or function, and random) were compared with one another and with direct relations on measures including associative strength ratings, amount of exposure required for learning, and response times for recognizing icons. Findings suggest that performance is best with direct relations, worst with random relations, and that ecological and metaphorical relations involve distinct types of association but do not differ in learnability.
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