Single-laser-shot temperature measurements at 5 kHz were performed in a model gas turbine combustor using femtosecond (fs) coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). The combustor was operated at a global equivalence ratio of 0.65 and 10 kW thermal power. Measurements were performed at various locations within the flame in order to resolve the spatial flame structure and compare to previously published studies. Power spectral density analysis of the temperature measurements yielded the characteristic thermo-acoustic pulsation frequency previously reported at 308 Hz. These results demonstrate the usefulness of fs-CARS for the investigation of highly turbulent combustion phenomena. The spatial resolution of the single-laser shot temperature measurements was approximately 600 µm, the precision was approximately ±2%, and the estimated accuracy was approximately ±3%. The dynamic range was sufficient for temperature measurements ranging from 300 K to 2400 K, although some detector saturation was observed for low temperature spectra.
The PRECCINSTA GTMC was studied at elevated pressure and power density with 6 kHz stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV), OH* chemiluminescence (CL), and 100 kHz dynamic pressure measurements. This technically premixed, swirl stabilized flame exhibited self-excited thermoacoustic oscillations with limit-cycle behavior. A helical precessing vortex core (PVC) was detected within the inner shear layer, between the central recirculation bubble (CRB) and the reactant jets. The PVC was found to be the delineating flow feature for combustion dynamics even at elevated pressure. Sparse dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) of the velocity fields deconvolved the dynamics into a thermoacoustic and PVC mode. The precession of the PVC was at a non-harmonic frequency to the thermoacoustic oscillations, and at least twice that of findings at atmospheric conditions. Nevertheless, the continuous and persistent structure of the PVC allows it promote unsteady heat release to sustain the thermoacoustic cycle. The three dimensional structure of the reactant jets, central recirculation bubble, and PVC was reconstructed by double phase conditioning the reconstructed velocity field. The surface of the CRB was observed to transition between asymmetric and symmetric states depending on the thermoacoustic phase. Analysis of the swirling strength values on the CRB surface indicates the interaction strength between the hydrodynamic structures of the PVC and CRB. When this coupling is large, the heat release determined by the mean OH*-CL intensity is maximum. These findings indicate a critical role of the PVC and CRB interaction on combustion in unstable swirl flames at conditions closer to those found in a modern gas turbine engine.
a b s t r a c tSingle-laser-shot temperature measurements at 5 kHz were performed in a gas turbine model combustor using femtosecond (fs) coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). The combustor was operated at two conditions; one exhibiting a low level of thermoacoustic instability and the other a high level of instability. Measurements were performed at 73 locations within each flame in order to resolve the spatial flame structure and compare to previously published studies. The measurement procedures, including the procedure for calibrating the laser system parameters, are discussed in detail. Despite the high turbulence levels in the combustor, signals were obtained on virtually every laser shot, and these signals were strong enough for spectral fitting analysis for determination of flames temperatures. The spatial resolution of the single-laser shot temperature measurements was approximately 600 μm, the precision was approximately ±2%, and the estimated accuracy was approximately ±3%. The dynamic range was sufficient for temperature measurements ranging from 300 K to 2200 K, although some detector saturation was observed for low temperature spectra. These results demonstrate the usefulness of fs-CARS for the investigation of highly turbulent combustion phenomena. In a companion paper, the time-resolved fs CARS data are analyzed to provide insight into the temporal dynamics of the gas turbine model combustor flow field.
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