Molecular screening for point mutations and rearrangements is feasible in air-dried FNAs. Although the impact of detecting point mutations and rearrangements in FNAs has most likely been overestimated in previous studies, molecular FNA analyses improve presurgical diagnostics. The detection of BRAF mutations in FNA may improve the choice of surgery and postsurgical treatment. Further data are necessary to elucidate the true impact of detecting RAS and PAX8/PPARG mutations in FNAs. The inclusion of additional rare somatic mutations and miRNA markers might further improve the impact of molecular FNA diagnostics.
Testing for a panel of somatic mutations has led to an improvement of sensitivity/specificity for indeterminate/follicular proliferation FNAB samples. Further methodological improvements, standardizations, and further molecular markers should soon lead to a broader application of molecular FNAB cytology for the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules and to a substantial reduction of diagnostic surgeries.
Background: The diagnostic limitations of fine needle aspiration (FNA), like the indeterminate category, can be partially overcome by molecular analysis. As PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC rearrangements have been detected in follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) and papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), their detection in FNA smears could improve the FNA diagnosis. To date, these rearrangements have never been analyzed in routine air-dried FNA smears, but only in frozen tissue, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue, and in fresh FNA material. Fixed routine air-dried FNA samples have hitherto been judged as generally not suitable for testing these rearrangements in a clinical setting. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of extracting RNA from routine air-dried FNA smears for the detection of these rearrangements with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Methods: A new method for RNA extraction from routine air-dried FNA smears was established, which allowed analysis for the presence of four variants of PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC 1 and RET/PTC 3, which were analyzed in 106 routine FNA smears and the corresponding surgically obtained FFPE tissues using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). To assess RNA quality, an intron-spanning PAX8 cDNA was amplified. Results: Acceptable RNA quality was obtained from 95% of the FNA samples and 92% of the FFPE samples. PAX8/PPARG was detected in 4 of 96 FFPEs and in 6 of 96 FNAs. PAX8/PPARG was present in 4 of 10 FTCs and in 3 of 42 follicular adenomas (FAs). Similarly, RET/PTC was found in 3 of 96 FFPEs and in 4 of 96 FNAs. Two of 21 PTC samples and 3 of 42 FA samples carried this rearrangement. Conclusion: These data are the first to show the feasibility of extracting RNA from routine air-dried FNA smears for the detection of PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC rearrangements with RT-qPCR. These promising methodological advances, if confirmed in larger series of FNA and FFPE samples, may lead to the introduction of molecular analysis of routine air-dried FNA smears in everyday practice.
The biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) using biological systems such as fungi has evolved to become an important area of nanobiotechnology. Herein, we report for the first time the extracellular synthesis of highly stable silver NPs (AgNPs) using the nematophagous fungus
(AC001). The fungal cell-free filtrate was analyzed by the Bradford method and 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid assay and used to synthesize the AgNPs in the presence of a 1 mM AgNO
solution. They have been characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, Zeta potential measurements, Fourier-transform infrared, and Raman spectroscopes. UV–Vis spectroscopy confirmed bioreduction, while X-ray diffractometry established the crystalline nature of the AgNPs. Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy images showed approximately 11, 38 nm monodisperse and quasispherical AgNPs. Zeta potential analysis was able to show a considerable stability of AgNPs. The N–H stretches in Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy indicate the presence of protein molecules. The Raman bands suggest that chitinase was involved in the growth and stabilization of AgNPs, through the coating of the particles. Our results show that the NPs we synthesized have good stability, high yield, and monodispersion.
The objective of the present work was to evaluate the efficiency of Bioverm ® fungal formulation (Duddingtonia flagrans-AC001) in controlling Haemonchus contortus and Strongyloides papillosus in sheep. In vitro predation tests were carried out in Petri dishes containing agar culture medium 2%. Four experimental groups were formed, with five replicates each:
Background: Helminth parasites cause morbidity and mortality in both humans and animals. Most anthelmintic drugs used in the treatment of parasitic nematode infections act on target proteins or regulate the electrical activity of neurons and muscles. In this way, it can lead to paralysis, starvation, immune attack, and expulsion of the worm. However, current anthelmintics have some limitations that include a limited spectrum of activity across species and the threat of drug resistance, which highlights the need for new drugs for human and veterinary medicine. Purpose: Present study has been conducted to determine the anthelmintic activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized from the extract of nematophagous fungus, Duddingtonia flagrans, on the infecting larvae of Ancylostoma caninum (L 3 ). Methods: The nanoparticles were characterized by visual, ultraviolet, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, and X-ray diffraction. The in vitro study was based on experiments to inhibit the motility of infective larvae (L 3 ), and the ultrastructural analysis of the nematode was performed by images obtained by TEM. Results: The XRD studies revealed the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles, and FTIR results implied that AgNPs were successfully synthesized and capped with compounds present in the extract. The results showed that the green synthesis of AgNPs exhibited nematicidal activity, being the only ones capable of penetrating the cuticle of the larvae, causing changes in the tegmentum, and consequently, the death of the nematode. Conclusion: The extract of the fungus D. flagrans is able to synthesize AgNP and these have a nematicidal action.
Sharks are very sensitive to stress and prone to a high mortality rate after capture. Since approximately 50 million of sharks are caught as bycatch every year, and current recommendations to reduce the impact of commercial fishing strongly support immediate release, it is imperative to better understand post-release mortality caused by the stress of capture and handling. Blood samples allow the assessment of stress levels which are valuable tools to reduce mortality in commercial, recreational and scientific fishing, being essential for the improvement in those conservation measures. Biochemical analyses are widely used for sharks as stress indicators, with secondary plasma parameters (lactate, glucose and ions) being the most often employed assays. However, it is virtually impossible to determine baseline plasma parameters in free-ranging sharks, since blood withdrawal involves animal capture and restrain, which are stressful procedures. This study aims at analyzing secondary parameters of five healthy tiger sharks captured with circular hooks and handlines in Fernando de Noronha (Northeastern Brazil) and comparing them with secondary parameters of three dead tiger sharks caught off Recife (also Northeastern Brazil). The results showed that the analysis of some plasma constituents in dead animals may be an efficient tool to assess stress and lethality. However, traditional parameters such as glucose and calcium, need to be used with caution. The results also demonstrated the extreme importance of urea and phosphorus for assessing stress response and mortality in tiger sharks, both parameters frequently neglected and of utmost importance for shark's homeostasis.
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