The photochemical and photophysical properties of the cis-[Ru(II)(α-diimine)2(4-APy)2](2+) complexes, where α-diimine = 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and 4-APy = 4-aminopyridine I, 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Ph2phen) II, 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) III, and 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine (Me2bpy) IV, are reported. The four complexes were characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography, (1)H NMR, UV-visible, emission, and transient absorption spectroscopy. Upon photolysis in acetonitrile solution these complexes undergo 4-APy dissociation to give the monoacetonitrile complex (for II, III, and IV) or the bis(acetonitrile) complex (for I). A fairly wide range of excitation wavelengths (from 420 to 580 nm) were employed to explore the photophysics of these systems. Quantum yields and transient spectra are provided. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT analysis of singlet and triplet excited states facilitated our understanding of the photochemical behavior. A detailed assessment of the geometric and electronic structures of the lowest energy spin triplet charge transfer state ((3)MLCT) and spin triplet metal centered state ((3)MC) (dπ → σ* transitions) for species I-IV is presented. A second, previously unobserved, and nondissociative, (3)MC state is identified and is likely involved in the primary step of photodissociation. This new (3)MC state may indeed play a major role in many other photodissociation processes.
The water-soluble and visible luminescent complexes cis-[Ru(L-L)2(L)2](2+) where L-L = 2,2-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline and L= imidazole, 1-methylimidazole, and histamine have been synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic techniques. Spectroscopic (circular dichroism, saturation transfer difference NMR, and diffusion ordered spectroscopy NMR) and isothermal titration calorimetry studies indicate binding of cis-[Ru(phen)2(ImH)2](2+) and human serum albumin occurs via noncovalent interactions with K(b) = 9.8 × 10(4) mol(-1) L, ΔH = -11.5 ± 0.1 kcal mol(-1), and TΔS = -4.46 ± 0.3 kcal mol(-1). High uptake of the complex into HCT116 cells was detected by luminescent confocal microscopy. Cytotoxicity of cis-[Ru(phen)2(ImH)2](2+) against proliferation of HCT116p53(+/+) and HCT116p53(-/-) shows IC50 values of 0.1 and 0.7 μmol L(-1). Flow cytometry and western blot indicate RuphenImH mediates cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase in both cells and is more prominent in p53(+/+). The complex activates proapoptotic PARP in p53(-/-), but not in p53(+/+). A cytostatic mechanism based on quantification of the number of cells during the time period of incubation is suggested.
-Nests of Megachile (Moureapis) benigna and Megachile (Moureapis) maculata were obtained during a 12-month trap-nesting program in a semideciduous forest reserve in southeastern Brazil. Trap nests were bamboo culms wider than those usually used in trap-nesting studies and it is suggested that species of Moureapis may prefer to nest in wide cavities. Nest construction was concentrated in the warm rainy season, but M. benigna had a secondary peak of nesting activity in the mid dry season, suggesting it is a bivoltine species. No species occupied the entire length of trap nests, but several linear series of cells were frequently packed inside a single culm. Nests of M. benigna were parasitized by one unidentified species of Coelioxys. Unidentified chalcidoid wasps emerged from some nests and phorid flies emerged from another one. In both cases, the developing host bees were killed. An unidentified conopid fly emerged from an adult female M. maculata found dead inside an incomplete nest.
The present study evaluated the in vivo antitumor effects and toxicity of a new Ru(II) compound, cis-(Ru[phen][ImH]) (also called RuphenImH [RuC]), against Walker-256 carcinosarcoma in rats. After subcutaneous inoculation of Walker-256 cells in the right pelvic limb, male Wistar rats received 5 or 10mgkg RuC orally or intraperitoneally (i.p.) every 3 days for 13 days. A positive control group (2mgkg cisplatin) and negative control group (vehicle) were also used. Tumor progression was checked daily. After treatment, tumor weight, plasma biochemistry, hematology, oxidative stress, histology, and tumor cell respiration were evaluated. RuC was effective against tumors when administered i.p. but not orally. The highest i.p. dose of RuC (10mgkg) significantly reduced tumor volume and weight, induced oxidative stress in tumor tissue, reduced the respiration of tumor cells, and induced necrosis but did not induce apoptosis in the tumor. No clinical signs of toxicity or death were observed in tumor-bearing or healthy rats that were treated with RuC. These results suggest that RuC has antitumor activity through the modulation of oxidative stress and impairment of oxidative phosphorylation, thus promoting Walker-256 cell death without causing systemic toxicity. These effects make RuC a promising anticancer drug for clinical evaluation.
Objective: Hypothalamic inflammation and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) overexpression in astrocytes are well described in obese animals, as are some cognitive and memory deficits. As the hippocampus plays important roles in the consolidation of information, this investigation aimed to observe the memory function and the astrocyte expression of GFAP in the hippocampus of rats that received either a hypercaloric or a normocaloric diet. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats received a high-fat (cafeteria) or a standard diet for 60 days. On the 61st day, the rats were submitted to the novel object recognition (NOR) test at three and 24 hours after the first contact with objects, to assess short-term and long-term memory, respectively. Thereafter, the rats were euthanized and their brains were collected for GFAP immunohistochemical investigation in the hippocampus (CA1, CA2, CA3 areas) and hypothalamus (periventricular and arcuate nuclei). Astrocytic reactivity was assessed by morphometry. Different white adipose tissue depots and brown adipose tissue were weighed to calculate the adiposity index. Results: The hypercaloric diet increased body weight gain, adiposity index, white adipose tissue weight (epididymal, subcutaneous and retroperitoneal) and brown adipose tissue weight. Rats fed with the hypercaloric diet showed short-term and long-term memory impairments in the NOR test, as well as increased GFAP expression in astrocytes from all analyzed hypothalamic and hippocampal areas. Conclusion: This astrogliosis suggests that the neuroinflammatory response also occurs in the hippocampus and may be involved in the memory losses observed in obese/overweight animals.
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