The goal of this study was to examine the prevalence, assessment and management of pediatric pain in a public teaching hospital. The study sample consisted of 121 inpatients (70 infants, 36 children, and 15 adolescents), their families, 40 physicians, and 43 nurses. All participants were interviewed except infants and children who could not communicate due to their clinical status. The interview included open-ended questions concerning the inpatients' pain symptoms during the 24 h preceding data collection, as well as pain assessment and pharmacological/non-pharmacological management of pain. The data were obtained from 100% of the eligible inpatients. Thirty-four children/adolescents (28%) answered the questionnaire and for the other 72% (unable to communicate), the family/health professional caregivers reported pain. Among these 34 persons, 20 children/adolescents reported pain, 68% of whom reported that they received pharmacological intervention for pain relief. Eighty-two family caregivers were available on the day of data collection. Of these, 40 family caregivers (49%) had observed their child's pain response. In addition, 74% reported that the inpatients received pharmacological management. Physicians reported that only 38% of the inpatients exhibited pain signs, which were predominantly acute pain detected during clinical procedures. They reported that 66% of patients received pharmacological intervention. The nurses reported pain signs in 50% of the inpatients, which were detected during clinical procedures. The nurses reported that pain was managed in 78% of inpatients by using pharmacological and/or non-pharmacological interventions. The findings provide evidence of the high prevalence of pain in pediatric inpatients and the under-recognition of pain by health professionals.
-The goal of this study was to assess the relation between gender, age, motor type, topography and gross motor function, based on the Gross Motor Function System of children with cerebral palsy. Trunk control, postural changes and gait of one hundred children between 5 months and 12 years old, were evaluated. There were no significant differences between gender and age groups (p=0.887) or between gender and motor type (p=0.731). In relation to body topography most children (88%) were spastic quadriplegic. Most hemiplegics children were rated in motor level I, children with diplegia were rated in motor level III, and quadriplegic children were rated in motor level V. Functional classification is necessary to understand the differences in cerebral palsy and to have the best therapeutic planning since it is a complex disease which depends on several factors.Key wordS: cerebral palsy, disabled children, motor skills, classification system, gross motor function.Classificação da paralisia cerebral: associação entre gênero, idade, tipo motor, topografia e função Motora Grossa resumo -este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a relação entre gênero, idade, tipo motor, topografia e Função Motora Grossa, baseado no Sistema de Função Motora Grossa em crianças com paralisia cerebral. Participaram desta pesquisa 100 crianças com idade entre 5 meses a 12 anos que foram observadas em relação ao controle de tronco, trocas posturais e marcha. Não houve diferenças significativas entre gêneros e grupos etários (p=0,887) e entre gênero e tipo motor (p=0,731). em relação à topografia corporal, houve predomínio de crianças com quadriplegia, sendo que a maioria (88%) era do tipo espástico. Quanto ao nível motor, as crianças hemiplégicas pertenciam em sua maioria ao nível I, as diplégicas ao nível III e as quadriplégicas ao nível V. Sendo a paralisia cerebral uma condição complexa que depende de diversos fatores, beneficia-se de classificações funcionais para compreensão da diversidade e melhor planejamento terapêutico. PAlAVrAS-chAVe: paralisia cerebral, criança deficiente, sistema de classificação, habilidade motora, função motora grossa. cerebral palsy (cP) is described as a range of disorders of motor and postural development which causes functional limitations attributed to non-progressive disorders that occur in fetal development or child' s brain 1 . It has traditionally been described based on the kind of damage (spasticity, dyskinesia and ataxia) and its location, or topography (hemiplegia, diplegia and tetraplegia) 2 . Until recently there were not standardized methods to classify cerebral palsy in relation to subtypes and severity of motor impairments 3-5 . The Gross Motor Function System (GMFcS) 6 was developed to classify functional mobility in children diagnosed with cerebral palsy by levels of functional mobility and consists of five levels ranging from I, which includes children with minimal or no dysfunction relative to community mobility to V, which includes children who are totally dependent and need help to mo...
| Background: Several studies have demonstrated the importance of using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) to classify gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy, but the reliability of the expanded and revised version has not been examined in Brazil (GMFCS E & R). Objective: To determine the intraand inter-rater reliability of the Portuguese-Brazil version of the GMFCS E & R applied by therapists and compare to classification provided by parents of children with cerebral palsy. Method: Data were obtained from 90 children with cerebral palsy, aged 4 to 18 years old, attending the neurology or rehabilitation service of a Brazilian hospital. Therapists classified the children's motor function using the GMFCS E & R and parents used the Brazilian Portuguese version of the GMFCS Family Report Questionnaire. Intra-and inter-rater reliability was obtained through percentage agreement and Cohen's unweighted Kappa statistics (k). The Chi-square test was used to identify significant differences in the classification of parents and therapists. Results: Almost perfect agreement was reached between the therapists [K=0.90 (95% confidence interval 0.83-0.97)] and intra-raters (therapists) with K=1.00 [95% confidence interval (1.00-1.00)], p<0.001. Agreement between therapists and parents was substantial (k=0.716, confidence interval 0.596-0.836), though parents classify gross motor impairment more severely than therapists (p=0.04). Conclusions: The Portuguese version of the GMFCS E & R is reliable for use by parents and therapists. Parents tend to classify their children's limitations more severely, because they know their performance in different environments.
A correção da idade para avaliação motora de nascidos pré-termo tem sido consenso, o que não ocorre em outros domínios do desenvolvimento. Este estudo comparou indicadores da aquisição e desenvolvimento da linguagem, considerando-se as idades cronológica e corrigida. Foram acompanhadas por 1 a 15 meses 20 crianças hígidas nascidas entre 28 e 36 semanas (mediana 32s), com 800g a 2380g (mediana 1590g), sendo 9 adequado para a idade gestacional (AIG) e 11 pequenas para a idade gestacional (PIG). A referência de normalidade foi o roteiro de Costa et al. (1992), que contém cinco níveis de linguagem. Quanto aos comportamentos receptivos, já considerando-se a idade cronológica, houve desempenho normal em todos os níveis, exceto no nível I (0-3 meses). Em relação à linguagem expressiva, considerando-se a idade cronológica, das 50 avaliações, 6 (12%) foram normais. Com a correção da idade, em 16 avaliações (40%) as crianças adequaram-se ao nível esperado, sendo mais freqüente a adequação aos 6 e 12 meses. Considerando-se a idade cronológica, houve maior número de AIG com desempenho normal (p<0,05). Com o uso da metodologia de Costa, não foi necessário corrigir a idade para avaliação da linguagem receptiva e, para a expressiva, a freqüência maior de resultados normais nas idades corrigidas para 6 e 12 meses sugere intensificação de vigilância nestas idades.
BACKGROUND:The Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) has been widely used to describe the manual ability of children with cerebral palsy (CP); however its reliability has not been verified in Brazil. OBJECTIVE:To establish the inter- and intra-rater reliability of the Portuguese-Brazil version of the MACS by comparing the classifications given by therapists and parents of children with CP. METHOD:Data were obtained from 90 children with CP between the ages of 4 and 18 years, who were treated at the neurology and rehabilitation clinics of a Brazilian hospital. Therapists (an occupational therapist and a student) classified manual ability (MACS) through direct observation and information provided by parents. Therapists and parents used the Portuguese-Brazil version of the MACS. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was obtained using unweighted Kappa coefficient (k) and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). The Chi-square test was used to identify the predominance of disagreements in the classification of parents and therapists. RESULTS:An almost perfect agreement resulted among therapists [K=0.90 (95% CI 0.83-0.97); ICC=0.97 (95%CI 0.96-0.98)], as well as with intra-rater (therapists), with Kappa ranging between 0.83 and 0.95 and ICC between 0.96 and 0.99 for the evaluator with more and less experience in rehabilitation, respectively. The agreement between therapists and parents was fair [K=0.36 (95% CI 0.22-0.50); ICC=0.79 (95% CI 0.70-0.86)]. CONCLUSIONS:The Portuguese version of the MACS is a reliable instrument to be used jointly by parents and therapists.
We report an 18-month-old Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) patient who developed a rapid-onset neuropathy, with proximal and distal weakness, and non-uniform nerve conduction studies. The neuropathy responded well to immunomodulation, confirming the coexistence of an inherited and an inflammatory neuropathy. Unexpected clinical and/or electrophysiological manifestations in CMT1A patients should alert clinicians to concomitant inflammatory neuropathy. In addition, this association raises reflections about disease mechanism in CMT1A.
Background: Cerebral palsy (CP) patients have motor limitations that can affect functionality and abilities for activities of daily living (ADL). Health related quality of life and health status instruments validated to be applied to these patients do not directly approach the concepts of functionality or ADL. The Child Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) seems to be a good instrument to approach this dimension, but it was never used for CP patients. The purpose of the study was to verify the psychometric properties of CHAQ applied to children and adolescents with CP.
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