BackgroundWe performed a systematic review of randomized controlled studies evaluating any drug, technique or device aimed at improving the success rate or safety of tracheal intubation in the critically ill.MethodsWe searched PubMed, BioMed Central, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials and references of retrieved articles. Finally, pertinent reviews were also scanned to detect further studies until May 2017. The following inclusion criteria were considered: tracheal intubation in adult critically ill patients; randomized controlled trial; study performed in Intensive Care Unit, Emergency Department or ordinary ward; and work published in the last 20 years. Exclusion criteria were pre-hospital or operating theatre settings and simulation-based studies. Two investigators selected studies for the final analysis. Extracted data included first author, publication year, characteristics of patients and clinical settings, intervention details, comparators and relevant outcomes. The risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane Collaboration’s Risk of Bias tool.ResultsWe identified 22 trials on use of a pre-procedure check-list (1 study), pre-oxygenation or apneic oxygenation (6 studies), sedatives (3 studies), neuromuscular blocking agents (1 study), patient positioning (1 study), video laryngoscopy (9 studies), and post-intubation lung recruitment (1 study). Pre-oxygenation with non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and/or high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) showed a possible beneficial role. Post-intubation recruitment improved oxygenation, while ramped position increased the number of intubation attempts and thiopental had negative hemodynamic effects. No effect was found for use of a checklist, apneic oxygenation (on oxygenation and hemodynamics), videolaryngoscopy (on number and length of intubation attempts), sedatives and neuromuscular blockers (on hemodynamics). Finally, videolaryngoscopy was associated with severe adverse effects in multiple trials.ConclusionsThe limited available evidence supports a beneficial role of pre-oxygenation with NIV and HFNC before intubation of critically ill patients. Recruitment maneuvers may increase post-intubation oxygenation. Ramped position increased the number of intubation attempts; thiopental had negative hemodynamic effects and videolaryngoscopy might favor adverse events.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13054-017-1927-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Background We aimed to identify interventions documented by randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reduce mortality in adult critically ill and perioperative patients, followed by a survey of clinicians' opinion and routine practice to understand the clinicians' response to such evidence. Methods
Purpose Left atrial appendage (LAA) closure is an interventional procedure increasingly used to prevent stroke in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation and contraindications to anticoagulation therapy. As this procedure requires a relatively immobile patient and performance of continuous and prolonged transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), it is usually performed under general anesthesia. In this case series, we describe the feasibility of prolonged TEE for percutaneous LAA closure using a new noninvasive ventilation device that can avoid the need for endotracheal intubation and general anesthesia. Clinical features Percutaneous LAA closure was performed under deep sedation in three elderly patients with permanent atrial fibrillation. Sedation was obtained with a combination of midazolam, propofol, and remifentanil. Continuous intraoperative TEE was performed through the port of the newly available Janus mask (Biomedical Srl; Florence, Italy), allowing for noninvasive ventilation (pressure support = 12-16 cm H 2 O; positive end-expiratory pressure = 7 cm H 2 O; FIO 2 = 0.3) in these spontaneously breathing patients. The total procedure times ranged from 75-90 min. The patients reported excellent satisfaction with the sedation received in terms of discomfort experienced during the procedure, capacity to recall the procedure, and comfort with the mask. The operators also rated the procedural conditions as excellent.
ConclusionDeep sedation with noninvasive ventilation may be a reasonable and safe alternative to general endotracheal anesthesia in patients requiring prolonged TEE for noninvasive cardiac procedures, including LAA closure.
RésuméObjectif La fermeture de l'appendice auriculaire gauche (AAG) est une procédure interventionnelle de plus en plus utilisée pour prévenir les accidents vasculaires cérébraux chez les patients souffrant de fibrillation auriculaire chronique ou présentant des contre-indications à l'anticoagulothérapie. Comme cette intervention requiert que le patient soit relativement immobile et une échocardiographie transoesophagienne (ETO) continue et prolongée, elle est habituellement réalisée sous anesthésie générale. Dans cette série de cas, nous décrivons la faisabilité d'une ETO prolongée pour la fermeture Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article
Background: Tracheal intubation in patients at risk for secondary spinal cord injury is potentially difficult and risky. Objectives: To compare tracheal intubation techniques in adult patients at risk for secondary cervical spinal cord injury undergoing surgery. Primary outcome was firstattempt failure rate. Secondary outcomes were time to successful intubation and procedure complications. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with trial sequential analysis (TSA). Data Sources: Databases searched up to July 2019. Eligibility: Randomized controlled trials comparing different intubation techniques. Results: We included 18 trials enrolling 1972 patients. Four studies used the "awake" approach, but no study compared awake versus non-awake techniques. In remaining 14 RCTs, intubation was performed under general anesthesia. First-attempt failure rate was similar when comparing direct laryngoscopy or fiberoptic bronchoscopy versus other techniques. A better first-attempt failure rate was found with videolaryngoscopy and when pooling all the fiberoptic techniques together. All these results appeared not significant at TSA, suggesting inconclusive evidence. Intubating lighted stylet allowed faster intubation. Postoperative neurological complications were 0.34% (no significant difference among techniques). No life-threatening adverse event was reported; mild local complications were common (19.5%). The certainty of evidence was low to very low mainly due to high imprecision and indirectness. Conclusions: Videolaryngoscopy and fiberoptic-assisted techniques might be associated with higher first-attempt failure rate over controls. However, low to very low certainty of evidence does not allow firm conclusions on the best tracheal intubation in patients at risk for cervical spinal cord injury.
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