BACKGROUND Heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60) is a chaperonin involved in tumorigenesis, but its participation in tumor development and progression is not well understood and its value as a tumor biomarker has not been fully elucidated. In the current study, the authors presented evidence supporting the theory that Hsp60 has potential as a biomarker as well as a therapeutic target in patients with large bowel cancer. METHODS The authors studied a population of 97 subjects, including patients and controls. Immunomorphology, Western blot analysis, and quantitative real‐time polymerase chain reaction were performed on tissue specimens. Exosomes were isolated from blood and characterized by electron microscopy, biochemical tests, and Western blot analysis. RESULTS Hsp60 was found to be increased in cancerous tissue, in which it was localized in the tumor cell plasma membrane, and in the interstitium associated with cells of the immune system, in which it was associated with exosomes liberated by tumor cells and, as such, circulated in the blood. An interesting finding was that these parameters returned to normal shortly after tumor removal. CONCLUSIONS The data from the current study suggested that Hsp60 is a good candidate for theranostics applied to patients with large bowel carcinoma and encourage similar research among patients with other tumors in which Hsp60 has been implicated. Cancer 2015;121:3230–3239. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of the heat shock protein 60 (HSP60), a mitochondrial matrix-associated protein belonging to the chaperonin family, in colorectal adenomas and cancers, comparing them to normal colonic tissues and hyperplastic polyps. We performed both immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis for HSP60. Immunohistochemistry resulted positive in all tubular adenomas and infiltrating adenocarcinomas. By contrast, normal tissues and hyperplastic polyps were negative. Quantitative analysis showed that tubular adenomas with different levels of dysplasia did not present statistical differences concerning HSP60 positivity. In addition, carcinomas always showed the highest expression. Western blot analysis confirmed these observations. These data suggest that HSP60 over-expression is an early event in carcinogenesis. We suspect that HSP60 plays a different role in colorectal carcinogenesis with respect to that in normal cells, which foresees its possible use as diagnostic and prognostic tools.
BackgroundIngestion of foreign bodies and food impaction represent the second most common endoscopic emergency after bleeding. The aim of this paper is to report the management and the outcomes in 67 patients admitted for suspected ingestion of foreign body between December 2012 and December 2014.MethodsThis retrospective study was conducted at Palermo University Hospitals, Italy, over a 2-year period. We reviewed patients’ database (age, sex, type of foreign body and its anatomical location, treatments, and outcomes as complications, success rates, and mortalities).ResultsForeign bodies were found in all of our 67 patients. Almost all were found in the stomach and lower esophagus (77 %). The types of foreign body were very different, but they were chiefly meat boluses, fishbones or cartilages, button battery and dental prostheses. In all patients it was possible to endoscopically remove the foreign body. Complications related to the endoscopic procedure were unfrequent (about 7 %) and have been treated conservatively. 5.9 % of patients had previous esophageal or laryngeal surgery, and 8.9 % had an underlying esophageal disease, such as a narrowing, dismotility or achalasia.ConclusionOur experience with foreign bodies and food impaction emphasizes the importance of endoscopic approach and removal, simple and secure when performed by experienced hands and under conscious sedation in most cases.High success rates, lower incidence of minor complications, reduction of the need of surgery and reduced hospitalization time are the strengths of the endoscopic approach.
Background:We measured anti-transglutaminase (antitTG) antibody in the culture medium of intestinal biopsy specimens from patients with suspected celiac disease (CD) and evaluated the relationship between antibody production and severity of intestinal mucosal damage. Methods: We performed diagnostic testing for CD on 273 consecutive patients. In addition to routine histologic evaluation of duodenal biopsy specimens, we assayed anti-tTG antibodies in serum and in the culture medium of duodenal biopsy specimens. Results: CD was diagnosed in 191 of the 273 patients. Sensitivity and specificity of the serum anti-endomysium (EmA) and anti-tTG assays were 83% and 85% and 99% and 95%, respectively, and both had 88% diagnostic accuracy. EmA and anti-tTG assayed in the culture medium had 98% sensitivity, 100% specificity, and 98% diagnostic accuracy (vs serum assays; P <0.0001). Twenty-nine CD patient specimens (16%) were negative for serum anti-tTG and EmA; for 24 of these patients, anti-tTG assay of the culture medium was positive. The CD patients whose biopsy specimens were positive for serum antibodies showed the following intestinal histologies: total villous atrophy, 35%; severe villous atrophy, 25%; mild atrophy, 25%; villi with no atrophy but with increased intraepithelial lymphocytes, 15%. None
Colonic lipomas are uncommon, benign, submucosal adipose tumors that are usually asymptomatic. Large lipomas can cause symptoms such as constipation, abdominal pain, rectal bleeding and intussusception. We report the case of a 60-year-old man with a history of lower abdominal pain and pseudoobstructive symptoms. Colonoscopy revealed a large polypoid sessile lesion in the sigma. We used a standardized technique of polypectomy, preceded by submucosal injection of dilute 5 ml polygelin with epinephrine 1:10,000 solution, to fully resect large colonic lipomas. The lipoma size was 3.5 cm. No bleeding or perforation developed. Histology showed the polyp to be a submucosul lipoma. On follow-up, there was no residual lesion. Colonic lipomas larger than 2 cm can be safely and efficaciously removed using electrosurgical snare polypectomy technique. The technique of submucosal injection before resection and using an electrocautery snare appears to be safe and reduces the risk of perforation reported in the literature.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) characterized by damage of large bowel mucosa and frequent extra-intestinal autoimmune comorbidities. The role played in IBD pathogenesis by molecular chaperones known to interact with components of the immune system involved in inflammation is unclear. We previously demonstrated that mucosal Hsp60 decreases in UC patients treated with conventional therapies (mesalazine, probiotics), suggesting that this chaperonin could be a reliable biomarker useful for monitoring response to treatment, and that it might play a role in pathogenesis. In the present work we investigated three other heat shock protein/molecular chaperones: Hsp10, Hsp70, and Hsp90. We found that the levels of these proteins are increased in UC patients at the time of diagnosis and decrease after therapy, supporting the notion that these proteins deserve attention in the study of the mechanisms that promote the development and maintenance of IBD, and as biomarkers of this disease (e.g., to monitor response to treatment at the histological level).
Introduction. Herpes simplex esophagitis is well recognized in immunosuppressed subjects, but it is infrequent in immunocompetent patients. We present a case of HSE in a 53-year-old healthy man. Materials and Methods. The patient was admitted with dysphagia, odynophagia, and retrosternal chest pain. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed minute erosive area in distal esophagus and biopsies confirmed esophagitis and findings characteristic of Herpes Simplex Virus infection. Results. The patients was treated with high dose of protonpump inhibitor, sucralfate, and acyclovir, orally, with rapid resolution of symptoms. Discussion. HSV type I is the second most common cause of infectious esophagitis. The majority of symptomatic immunocompetent patients with HSE will present with an acute onset of esophagitis. Endoscopic biopsies from the ulcer edges should be obtained for both histopathology and viral culture. In immunocompetent host, HSE is generally a self-limited condition. Conclusions. HSE should be suspected in case of esophagitis without evident cause, even if the patient is immunocompetent. When the diagnosis of HSE is confirmed, careful history and assessment for an immune disorder such as HIV infection is crucial, to look for underlying immune deficiency.
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