Two hundred days after the first confirmed case of COVID-19 in Brazil, the epidemic has rapidly spread in metropolitan areas and advanced throughout the countryside. We followed the temporal epidemic pattern at São Paulo State, the most populous of the country, the first to have a confirmed case of COVID-19, and the one with the most significant number of cases until now. We analysed the number of new cases per day in each regional health department and calculated the effective reproduction number (Rt) over time. Social distance measures, along with improvement in testing and isolating positive cases, general population mask-wearing and standard health security protocols for essential and non-essential activities, were adopted and impacted on slowing down epidemic velocity but were insufficient to stop transmission.
Objectives: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a public health threat for several tropical countries, including Brazil. Therapy failures and relapses aggravate VL morbidity and mortality. Our study aimed at identifying predictors of relapse and thus contributes to directing therapeutic options and patient followup. Methods: A nonconcurrent cohort of 571 subjects who completed successful therapy for VL in the city of Bauru, São Paulo State, Brazil, was followed for 24 months in order to identify the incidence and predictors of relapse. Extensive review of medical charts and laboratory files was conducted. Univariate and multivariable Cox regression models were used to identify predictors for the outcome of interest. A hierarchical strategy was used for variable selection in multivariable models. Results: Relapses occurred in 6.8% of treated subjects, after a median of 6 months (interquartile range, 4-9). In a comprehensive multivariable model, relapse was associated with: HIV-coinfection (hazard ratio [HR], 7.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.58-21.55); the presence of lower limb edema (HR, 6.06; 95%CI, 1.38-26.77) and low platelet count upon admission (HR for platelet count Â 1000, 0.99; 95%CI, 0.98-0.99) ; and secondary pneumonia (HR, 5.49; 95%CI, 1.49-20.18). On the other hand, therapy with Liposomal Amphotericin (as opposed to Antimoniate) was not independently associated with relapse (HR, 5.97; 95% CI, 0.63-56.29). Conclusion: Besides reinforcing the impact of HIV coinfection on the outcome of VL, our study points to clinical and laboratory findings that characterize patients who were more likely to relapse. Those groups should be more closely followed, and possibly could benefit from novel therapeutic options.
Fortaleza CR, Melo EC, Fortaleza CMCB. Nasopharyngeal colonization with methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus and mortality among patients in an intensive care unit. Rev Latino-am Enfermagem 2009 setembrooutubro; 17(5):677-82. (OR=1.02; p=0.97) o por causas infecciosas (OR=0.96; p=0.96 (OR=1,02; IC95%=0, p=0,97) ou por infecção (OR=0,96; IC95%=0,89; p=0,96
Nasopharyngeal colonization with Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is common in critically ill
In 2020, the world experienced its very first pandemic of the globalized era. A novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, is the causative agent of severe pneumonia and has rapidly spread through many nations, crashing health systems and leading a large number of people to death. In Brazil, the emergence of local epidemics in major metropolitan areas has always been a concern. In a vast and heterogeneous country, with regional disparities and climate diversity, several factors can modulate the dynamics of COVID-19. What should be the scenario for inner Brazil, and what can we do to control infection transmission in each of these locations? Here, a mathematical model is proposed to simulate disease transmission among individuals in several scenarios, differing by abiotic factors, social-economic factors, and effectiveness of mitigation strategies. The disease control relies on keeping all individuals’ social distancing and detecting, followed by isolating, infected ones. The model reinforces social distancing as the most efficient method to control disease transmission. Moreover, it also shows that improving the detection and isolation of infected individuals can loosen this mitigation strategy. Finally, the effectiveness of control may be different across the country, and understanding it can help set up public health strategies.
Background: People with diabetes mellitus, especially insulin-dependent diabetic patients, are a risk group for staphylococcal infections. Asymptomatic infection with Staphylococcus aureus is common and favors dissemination of the microorganism, rendering these individuals a source of infection. This study aimed to characterize the resistance profile, clonal profile and sequence type, as well as to analyze the prevalence and risk factors for nasal and oropharyngeal carriage of methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolated from insulin-dependent diabetic individuals in the city of Botucatu, SP, Brazil. Methods: Staphylococcus aureus was collected from the nasopharynx and oropharynx of 312 community-dwelling insulin-dependent diabetic individuals over a period of 3 years (October 2015 to December 2018). The isolates were characterized by susceptibility profiling, detection of the mecA gene, SCCmec typing, and molecular typing by PFGE and MLST. The risk factors associated with S. aureus and MRSA carriage were determined by logistic regression analysis. Results: The overall prevalence of colonization with S. aureus and MRSA was 30.4% and 4.8%, respectively. Fifteen of the 112 S. aureus isolates carried the mecA gene; SCCmec type IV was identified in 10 isolates, SCCmec type I in three, and SCCmec type II in two. Among the 15 resistant isolates (MRSA), four were susceptible to oxacillin/cefoxitin by the disc diffusion method and one MSSA isolate was resistant to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. The analysis of risk factors revealed a protective effect of age and lung disease, while lower-extremity ulcers were a risk factor for S. aureus. For MRSA, only male gender was significantly associated as a risk factor in multivariate analysis. Clonal profile analysis demonstrated the formation of clusters among MRSA isolates from different patients, with the identification of ST5-IV, ST5-I, and ST8-IV. Isolates carrying ST398 were identified among MSSA and MRSA (ST398-IV). Conclusion: Our findings reinforce the importance of epidemiological studies of S. aureus carriage, especially in populations at high risk of infections such as diabetics. The data suggest widespread dissemination of MRSA in the population of insulin-dependent diabetic patients studied, as well as the emergence of important lineages among these individuals.
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