The molecular mechanisms of plant recognition, colonization, and nutrient exchange between diazotrophic endophytes and plants are scarcely known. Herbaspirillum seropedicae is an endophytic bacterium capable of colonizing intercellular spaces of grasses such as rice and sugar cane. The genome of H. seropedicae strain SmR1 was sequenced and annotated by The Paraná State Genome Programme—GENOPAR. The genome is composed of a circular chromosome of 5,513,887 bp and contains a total of 4,804 genes. The genome sequence revealed that H. seropedicae is a highly versatile microorganism with capacity to metabolize a wide range of carbon and nitrogen sources and with possession of four distinct terminal oxidases. The genome contains a multitude of protein secretion systems, including type I, type II, type III, type V, and type VI secretion systems, and type IV pili, suggesting a high potential to interact with host plants. H. seropedicae is able to synthesize indole acetic acid as reflected by the four IAA biosynthetic pathways present. A gene coding for ACC deaminase, which may be involved in modulating the associated plant ethylene-signaling pathway, is also present. Genes for hemagglutinins/hemolysins/adhesins were found and may play a role in plant cell surface adhesion. These features may endow H. seropedicae with the ability to establish an endophytic life-style in a large number of plant species.
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers with greater than 1,300,000 cases and 450,000 deaths each year worldwide. The development of breast cancer involves a progression through intermediate stages until the invasive carcinoma and finally into metastatic disease. Given the variability in clinical progression, the identification of markers that could predict the tumor behavior is particularly important in breast cancer. The determination of tumor markers is a useful tool for clinical management in cancer patients, assisting in diagnostic, staging, evaluation of therapeutic response, detection of recurrence and metastasis, and development of new treatment modalities. In this context, this review aims to discuss the main tumor markers in breast carcinogenesis. The most well-established breast molecular markers with prognostic and/or therapeutic value like hormone receptors, HER-2 oncogene, Ki-67, and p53 proteins, and the genes for hereditary breast cancer will be presented. Furthermore, this review shows the new molecular targets in breast cancer: CXCR4, caveolin, miRNA, and FOXP3, as promising candidates for future development of effective and targeted therapies, also with lower toxicity.
Solid tumors are embedded in a stromal microenvironment consisting of immune cells, such as macrophages and lymphocytes, as well as nonimmune cells, such as endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Chemokines are a type of small secreted chemotactic cytokine and together with their receptors play key roles in the immune defense. Critically, they regulate cancer cellular migration and also contribute to their proliferation and survival. The CCR5 chemokine receptor is involved in leucocytes chemotaxis to sites of inflammation and plays an important role in the macrophages, T cells, and monocytes recruitment. Additionally, CCR5 may have an indirect effect on cancer progression by controlling the antitumor immune response, since it has been demonstrated that its expression could promote tumor growth and contribute to tumor metastasis, in different types of malignant tumors. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that a CCR5 antagonist may inhibit tumor growth, consisting of a possible therapeutic target. In this context, the present review focuses on the establishment of CCR5 within the interface of host immunity, tumor microenvironment, and its potential as a targeting to immunotherapy.
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a malignant myeloproliferative disorder that originates from a pluripotent stem cell expressing the bcr-abl oncogene. It is characterized by an abnormal release of the expanded, malignant stem cell clone from the bone marrow into the circulation. The stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) gene contains a common polymorphism, termed SDF1-3'A, in an evolutionarily conserved segment of the 3' untranslated region (UTR). In this work the SDF-1 genotypes of 25 patients (9-82 years old) who had been clinically and hematologically diagnosed with CML were compared with those of 60 healthy donors. In addition, the nature of bcr-abl hybrid mRNA and the association between demographic and hematological parameters were analyzed in cells from 12 CML patients (five women and seven men). All patients underwent blood collection during the chronic phase of disease after they received chemotherapy. b3a2 mRNA was detected in samples from eight of the CML patients and b2a2 mRNA was observed in four cases. An association between basophils and hemoglobin parameters was observed in that hemoglobin levels were higher in b2a2-expressing patients, and mean basophil levels were higher in patients expressing b3a2. Four of the CML patients (16%) were homozygous for 3'A allele. Of the patients who showed the presence of bcr-abl transcripts (N = 12), three presented the wt/wt genotype and nine were SDF1-3'A carriers. Three of the latter were homozygous for this mutation. It is possible that the bcr-abl fusion gene and the SDF1 genotype for 3'A allele have important implications for the pathogenesis of CML.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the commonest childhood malignancy, accounting for approximately 80 % of leukemia in the pediatric group, and its etiology is unknown. This neoplasia is characterized by male predominance, high-risk features and poor outcome, mainly in recurrence patients and adults. In recent years, advances in the success of childhood ALL treatment were verified, and the rate of cure is over 80 % of individuals. However, there is a considerable scope for improving therapeutic outcome in this neoplasia. Improvements in ALL therapy might readily be achieved by developing additional biomarkers that can predict and refine prognosis in patients with ALL. In normal hematopoietic cells, cytokines provide the stimulus for proliferation, survival, self-renewal, differentiation and functional activation. Abnormalities of cytokines are characteristic in all forms of leukemia, including ALL. The stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 or CXCL12) is a member of the CXC chemokine family that binds to CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis appears to play a role in dissemination of solid tumors and hematopoietic diseases. Understanding the mechanisms by which ALL cells are disseminated will provide additional information to expand therapeutic approach. Therefore, this review summarizes information relating to ALL cell biology, focusing specifically in a cytokine receptor important axis, CXCL12/CXCR4, that may have implications for novel treatment strategies to improve life expectancy of patients with this neoplasia.
Many tumor cells express chemokines and chemokine receptors, and, for this reason, these molecules can affect the tumor progression. It is known that breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous neoplasia comprising distinct diseases, histological characteristics, and clinical outcomes. The most studied role for CXCL12 chemokine and its receptor CXCR4 in breast cancer pathogenesis is the metastasis event, although several reports have demonstrated its involvement in other processes, such as angiogenesis and tumor growth. It has been found that CXCR4 is required for breast cancer cell migration to other sites such as lung, bone, and lymph nodes, which express high levels of CXCL12 chemokine. Therefore, CXCR4 is being considered a prognostic marker in breast cancer. Within this context, this review summarizes established studies involving expression of CXCR4 on breast cancer, focusing on its clinical significance.
Numerous interactions of the immune system with the central nervous system have been described recently. Mood and psychotic disorders, such as severe depression and schizophrenia, are both heterogeneous disorders regarding clinical symptomatology, the acuity of symptoms, the clinical course, the treatment response, and probably also the etiology. Detection of p24 RNA from Borna disease virus (BDV) by the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and in their biological relatives was evaluated. The subjects were 27 schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients, 27 healthy controls, 20 relatives without psychiatric disease, and 24 relatives with mood disorder, who attended the Psychiatric Ambulatory of Londrina State University, Paraná, Brazil. The subjects were interviewed by structured diagnostic criteria categorized according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, axis I, (SCID-IV). The mean duration of illness in schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients was 15.341+/-1.494 years and the median age at onset was 22.4+/-7.371 years. There were no significant differences in gender (P=0.297), age (P=0.99), albumin (P=0.26), and body mass index (kg/m(2)) (p=0.28), among patients, controls, and relatives. Patients and biological relatives had significantly higher positive p24 RNA BDV detection than controls (P=0.04); however, the clinical significance of BDV remains to be clarified.
The present study indicates that TGFB1 variants have subtype-specific roles in BC and may switch from tumor suppressor to promoter during tumor development, consistent with TGFβ1 dual role in BC pathogenesis.
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