The present study aimed to investigate motivations for the dual career of European student-athletes living in countries providing different educational services for elite athletes: State-centric regulation-State as sponsor/facilitator (State), National Sporting Federations/Institutes as intermediary (Federation) and Laisser Faire, no formal structures (No Structure). Therefore, the European Student-athletes' Motivation towards Sports and Academics Questionnaire (SAMSAQ-EU) was administered to 524 European student-athletes. Exploratory Factor Analysis, and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were applied to test the factor structure, and the reliability and validity of the SAMSAQ-EU, respectively. A multivariate approach was applied to verify subgroup effects (P ≤ 0.05) according to gender (i.e., female and male), age (i.e., ≤ 24 years, > 24 years), type of sport (i.e., individual sport and team sport) and competition level (i.e., national and international). Insufficient confirmatory indexes were reported for the whole European student-athlete group, whereas distinct three factor models [i.e., Student Athletic Motivation (SAM); Academic Motivation (AM); Career Athletic Motivation (CAM)] emerged, with acceptable reliability estimates, for State (SAM = 0.82; AM = 0.75; and CAM = 0.75), Federation (SAM = 0.82; AM = 0.66; and CAM = 0.87) and No Structure (SAM = 0.78; AM = 0.74; and CAM = 0.79) subgroups. Differences between subgroups were found only for competition level (P < 0.001) in relation to SAM (P = 0.001) and CAM (P < 0.001). For SAM, the highest and lowest values emerged for Federation (national, 5.1 ± 0.5; international, 5.4 ± 0.5) and State (national, 4.5 ± 0.9; international, 4.8 ± 0.7). The opposite picture emerged for CAM (Federation: national, 3.3 ± 0.7; international, 3.5 ± 0.9; State: national, 5.0 ± 0.8; international, 5.0 ± 0.9). Therefore, despite SAMSAQ-EU demonstrated to be a useful tool, results showed that European student-athletes' motivation for dual career has to be specifically investigated according to social contexts.
The interaction of multiple influences on the path to sport success is not yet fully understood by sport scientists. In this study, we examined variation in body size, functional capacities and motivation for achievement, competitiveness and deliberate practice of youth basketball players associated with differences in biological maturity status, chronological age and years of training experience. Reflecting the importance of interactive effects, we examined the relationships between the psychological variables and functional capacities. Fifty-eight male basketball players aged 9.5 to 15.5 years were considered. Variables included chronological age, estimated age at peak height velocity, stature, body mass and sitting height by anthropometry; the Work and Family Orientation and Deliberate Practice Motivation Questionnaires were also used. Finally, the Line Drill test and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) tests were used as functional capacities indicators for basketball. Variance components models derived from series of multilevel linear regression models revealed a substantial variation by maturity status for body size, functional capacities indicators, mastery and will to excel. The influence of estimated maturity status on mastery and will to excel was independent of age and years of experience. In contrast, no relationships were observed between psychological variables and functional capacities indicators. We conclude that growth-related changes are relevant to understanding players´ motivations for achievement, competitiveness and deliberate practice. This should be of interest to those involved in the selection and development of youth basketball players.
Relationships between growth, maturation and maximal short-term power outputs were investigated in 94 youth basketball players aged 14-16 years. Data included chronological age (CA), skeletal age (SA), years of training; body dimensions, estimated thigh volume, a running based short-term exercise assessed by the line drill test (LDT), the Bangsbo sprint test (BST) and short-term muscle power outputs with the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT). Multiple linear regression analyses were used to estimate the effects of CA, skeletal maturity (SA/CA), years of training experience, body size and lower-limb volume on short-term performance in the LDT, BST and WAnT, respectively. Explained variances differed between cycle-ergometry outputs (52-54%) and running test performances (23-46%). The independent effects of predictors were small in the fatigue scores of the WAnT (4%) and the BST (11%). Skeletal maturity, body mass and leg length were primary predictors for all maximal short-term power output measures. Leg length was more relevant as a predictor than stature in the WAnT outputs, while stature and body mass appeared in the model with the running tests as dependent variable. Maximal short-term running abilities were also sensitive to years of training. In summary, skeletal maturation, body size and thigh muscle mass explained moderate to large proportions of the variance on maximal short-term performances of adolescent basketball players. The results highlight the importance of considering maturity status in evaluating the maximal short-term power outputs of adolescent athletes.
In the present study we examined the age-and maturity-associated variation on body size and functional capacities in 47 adolescent female basketball players. Also, we examined the relative contribution of growth and maturity status to functional capacity between player variation. Data included chronological age, age at menarche, years of training experience; body dimensions; countermovement jump, Line drill test and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test-level 1. Bayesian multilevel modelling was used to estimate the independent effects of age, maturity status, years of training experience and body size on functional capacity indicators. Players were, on average, advanced in maturity status, with a mean age at menarche of 11.20 years (1.32 years). Age-associated variation in age at menarche, body size and functional performance was present. No substantial maturity-associated variation was observed for stature and functional capacities, but late maturing players appeared to be less experienced in the sport. Variance partition coefficients ranged between 38% and 45% for the three indicators of functional capacities. Body mass and adiposity were the predictors identified for all indicators of performance. Maturity status and years of experience were predictors of performance in the countermovement jump while age and years of experience were predictors of performance for the Line drill. Stature was only identified as a predictor of the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery-level 1. Coaches should interpret functional performance in adolescent female basketball players considering their different ages (chronological, biological and accumulated training) and their influence on body dimensions.
Carvalho, HM, Coelho e Silva, MJ, Figueiredo, AJ, Gonc xalves, CE, Castagna, C, Philippaerts, RM, and Malina RM. Cross-validation and reliability of the line-drill test of anaerobic performance in basketball players 14-16 years. J Strength Cond Res 25(4): 1113-1119, 2011-This study evaluates the validity and reliability of the line-drill (LD) test of anaerobic performance in 76 male basketball players 14.0-16.0 years of age. The Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) was used as the reference for anaerobic performance. Wingate Anaerobic Test and LD test were moderately correlated (0.39 and 0.43, p , 0.01). Estimated age at peak height velocity (APHV) was moderately, negatively, and significantly (p , 0.01) correlated with WAnT peak (r = 20.69) and mean power (r = 20.71); earlier-maturing players had greater anaerobic power. Training experience was not associated with anaerobic performance, but chronological age (CA) and estimated APHV were significant covariates of the LD test (p , 0.05). National players were better than local players on the LD test (p , 0.01) after controlling for CA and body size. Short-term reliability of the LD test (n = 12, 1-week interval) was good: technical error of measurement = 0.44 seconds (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.31-0.75 seconds), intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.91 (95% CI 0.68-0.97), and coefficient of variation = 1.4% (95% CI 1.0-2.3%). Although the relationship between the LD test and WAnT was moderate, the LD test effectively distinguished local-and national-level adolescent basketball players. In contrast to WAnT, the LD test was not influenced by estimated biological maturity status. Thus, the LD test may be suitable for field assessment of anaerobic performance of youth basketball players.
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