Tityus serrulatus sting causes thousands of deaths annually worldwide. T. serrulatus-envenomed victims exhibit local or systemic reaction that culminates in pulmonary oedema, potentially leading to death. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying T. serrulatus venom (TsV) activity remain unknown. Here we show that TsV triggers NLRP3 inflammasome activation via K+ efflux. Mechanistically, TsV triggers lung-resident cells to release PGE2, which induces IL-1β production via E prostanoid receptor 2/4-cAMP-PKA-NFκB-dependent mechanisms. IL-1β/IL-1R actions account for oedema and neutrophil recruitment to the lungs, leading to TsV-induced mortality. Inflammasome activation triggers LTB4 production and further PGE2 via IL-1β/IL-1R signalling. Activation of LTB4-BLT1/2 pathway decreases cAMP generation, controlling TsV-induced inflammation. Exogenous administration confirms LTB4 anti-inflammatory activity and abrogates TsV-induced mortality. These results suggest that the balance between LTB4 and PGE2 determines the amount of IL-1β inflammasome-dependent release and the outcome of envenomation. We suggest COX1/2 inhibition as an effective therapeutic intervention for scorpion envenomation.
In apparently otherwise healthy patients, periodontal disease is associated with increased circulating concentrations of IL-6 and hs-CRP, which decreased 3 months after non-surgical periodontal therapy. With regard to the CD40 ligand, MCP-1, sP-selectin, sVCAM-1, and sICAM-1, no changes were seen in the periodontal disease group between baseline and 3 months after therapy.
It is clear that leukotrienes mediate inflammatory response; new aspects of leukotriene function have recently been described. In this study, we demonstrate that leukotrienes are key chemical mediators in the control of parasite burdens in mice infected with Strongyloides venezuelensis. High leukotriene levels were detected in the lungs and small intestines of Swiss mice. In infected Swiss mice treated with MK886, a leukotriene synthesis inhibitor, numbers of adult worms, and eggs/g/feces were greater than in infected-only animals. The MK886 treatment inhibited leukotriene B4 production in the lungs and small intestines, albeit on different postinfection days. Similarly, parasite burdens and eggs/g/feces were greater in 5-lipoxygenase−/− mice than in wild-type animals. These observation were confirmed by histopathological study of the duodena. We subsequently observed significant lower numbers of eosinophils and mononuclear cells in the blood, peritoneal cavity fluid, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of Swiss mice treated with MK886. In the lung parenchyma of infected animals, MK886 significantly inhibited synthesis of IL-5 at the beginning of infection, whereas levels of IL-12 increased progressively throughout the postinfection period. However, levels of leukotriene C4, PGE2, TNF-α, IL-3, IL-4, IFN-γ, and IL-10 were comparable between the treated and untreated groups. Nevertheless, IgE and IgG1 (but not IgG2a) synthesis was also significantly inhibited by MK886 administration. Therefore, in S. venezuelensis-infected mice, adult worm and egg burdens are leukotriene dependent. These findings indicate potential immunostimulatory strategies involving leukotriene administration, and may serve as an alert to physicians treating Strongyloides stercoralis-infected patients presenting asthma-like symptoms because use of 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors may worsen the infection.
Leukotrienes produced from arachidonic acid by the action of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) are classical mediators of inflammatory responses. Recently, it has been demonstrated that leukotrienes also play an important role in host defense against microorganisms. In vitro studies have shown that leukotrienes augmented the anti-mycobacterial activity of neutrophils. In this study, we examined the role of leukotrienes in regulating host response and cytokine generation in a murine model of tuberculosis. Administration of the 5-LO pathway inhibitor MK 886, which reduced lung levels of both leukotriene B 4 and the anti-inflammatory substance lipoxin A 4 by ~50%, increased 60-day mortality from 14% to ~57% in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected mice, and increased lung bacterial burden by ~15-fold. Although MK 886-treated animals exhibited no reduction in pulmonary leukocyte accumulation, they did manifest reduced levels of nitric oxide generation and of the protective type 1 cytokines interleukin-12 and gamma interferon. Together our results demonstrate that 5-LO pathway product(s) -presumably leukotrienes-positively regulate protective Th1 responses against mycobacterial infection in vivo. Moreover, the immunosuppressive phenotype in infected mice observed with MK 886 is most consistent with inhibition of an activator (LTB 4 ) rather than a suppressor (LXA 4 ) of antimicrobial defense, suggesting the major effect of leukotrienes.
This study showed increased circulating MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels and proteolytic activity in periodontal disease patients that decrease after periodontal therapy. The effects of periodontal therapy suggest that it may attenuate inflammatory chronic diseases.
Scorpion sting-induced human envenomation provokes an intense inflammatory reaction. However, the mechanisms behind the recognition of scorpion venom and the induction of mediator release in mammalian cells are unknown. We demonstrated that TLR2, TLR4 and CD14 receptors sense Tityus serrulatus venom (TsV) and its major component, toxin 1 (Ts1), to mediate cytokine and lipid mediator production. Additionally, we demonstrated that TsV induces TLR2- and TLR4/MyD88-dependent NF-κB activation and TLR4-dependent and TLR2/MyD88-independent c-Jun activation. Similar to TsV, Ts1 induces MyD88-dependent NF-κB phosphorylation via TLR2 and TLR4 receptors, while c-Jun activation is dependent on neither TLR2 nor TLR4/MyD88. Therefore, we propose the term venom-associated molecular pattern (VAMP) to refer to molecules that are introduced into the host by stings and are recognized by PRRs, resulting in inflammation.
Scorpion envenomation induces a systemic immune response, and neurotoxins of venom act on specific ion channels, modulating neurotransmitter release or activity. However, little is known about the immunomodulatory effects of crude venom from scorpion Tityus serrulatus (TsV) or its toxins (Ts1, Ts2 and Ts6) in combination with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To investigate the immunomodulatory effects of TsV and its toxins (Ts1, Ts2 and Ts6), J774.1 cells were stimulated with different concentrations (25, 50 and 100 μg/mL) of venom or toxins pre-stimulated or not with LPS (0.5 μg/mL). Macrophage cytotoxicity was assessed, and nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine production were analyzed utilizing the culture supernatants. TsV and its toxins did not produce cytotoxic effects. Depending on the concentrations used, TsV, Ts1 and Ts6 stimulated the production of NO, interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in J774.1 cells, which were enhanced under LPS co-stimulation. However, LPS + Ts2 inhibited NO, IL-6 and TNF-α production, and Ts2 alone stimulated the production of IL-10, suggesting an anti-inflammatory activity for this toxin. Our findings are important for the basic understanding of the mechanisms involved in macrophage activation following envenomation; additionally, these findings may contribute to the discovery of new therapeutic compounds to treat immune-mediated diseases.
Histoplasma capsulatum (Hc) is a facultative, intracellular parasite of worldwide significance. Infection with Hc produces a broad spectrum of diseases and may progress to a life-threatening systemic disease, particularly in individuals with HIV infection. Resolution of histoplasmosis is associated with the activation of cell-mediated immunity, and leukotriene B4 plays an important role in this event. Lipid bodies (LBs) are increasingly being recognized as multifunctional organelles with roles in inflammation and infection. In this study, we investigated LB formation in histoplasmosis and its putative function in innate immunity. LB formation in leukocytes harvested from Hc-infected C57BL/6 mice peaks on day 2 postinfection and correlates with enhanced generation of lipid mediators, including leukotriene B4 and PGE2. Pretreatment of leukocytes with platelet-activating factor and BLT1 receptor antagonists showed that both lipid mediators are involved in cell signaling for LB formation. Alveolar leukocytes cultured with live or dead Hc also presented an increase in LB numbers. The yeast alkali-insoluble fraction 1, which contains mainly β-glucan isolated from the Hc cell wall, induced a dose- and time-dependent increase in LB numbers, indicating that β-glucan plays a signaling role in LB formation. In agreement with this hypothesis, β-glucan-elicited LB formation was inhibited in leukocytes from 5-LO−/−, CD18low and TLR2−/− mice, as well as in leukocytes pretreated with anti-Dectin-1 Ab. Interestingly, human monocytes from HIV-1-infected patients failed to produce LBs after β-glucan stimulation. These results demonstrate that Hc induces LB formation, an event correlated with eicosanoid production, and suggest a role for these lipid-enriched organelles in host defense during fungal infection.
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