In order to evaluate the present distribution patterns of salmonids and their potential effects on native fish, we sampled 11 large lakes and 105 streams, encompassing a total of 13 main hydrographic watersheds of southern Chile (39 o to 52 o S). Overall, trout (Salmo trutta and Oncorhynchus mykiss) accounted for more than 60 % of total fish abundance and more than 80 % of total biomass, while 40 % of the streams sampled did not have native fish. Salmon, introduced for aquaculture, such as O. kisutch, Salmo salar, and O. tshawytscha, were only present in lakes with salmon farming and did not seem to be reproducing naturally in affluent streams. We tested the effect of river geographic origin (Andes mountains, central valley, or Coastal range) on fish abundance and found that rainbow trout was more restricted to the Andean streams with higher water discharge, while brown trout was widely distributed and did not relate to any of several catchment attributes measured. The abundance of native fish was greater in lakes than in streams and the highest native fish biodiversity occurred in streams of the central valley. The most common native species were Galaxias maculatus, G. platei, Brachygalaxias bullocki, Aplochiton zebra and Basilichthys australis. Streams with higher conductivity, larger pool areas, more fine sediments, and low brown trout densities were more suitable for native fish. Thus, catchments with higher anthropogenic disturbance appeared as refuges for native species. Given the descriptive nature of our study we can only presume the negative impacts of trout and salmon on native fish; an effect which should be superimposed on biogeographical conditioning of present distribution. Yet based on the present abundance and distribution patterns of salmonids and native fish, negative effects are very likely. Conservation of native fish biodiversity in central valley streams, far from protected areas or national parks and fully exposed to human perturbations represents a great challenge. We propose to enhance conservation by exerting a stronger sport fishing pressure on trout in those streams.
As compared with adjuvant FAC, adjuvant TAC improved the rate of disease-free survival among women with high-risk, node-negative breast cancer. (Funded by GEICAM and Sanofi-Aventis; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00121992.).
A polymerase chain reaction approach using degenerate primers that targeted the conserved domains of cloned plant disease resistance genes (R genes) was used to isolate a set of 15 resistance gene analogs (RGAs) from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Eight different classes of RGAs were obtained from nucleotide binding site (NBS)-based primers and seven from not previously described Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor-like (TIR)-based primers. Putative amino acid sequences of RGAs were significantly similar to R genes and contained additional conserved motifs. The NBS-type RGAs were classified in two subgroups according to the expected final residue in the kinase-2 motif. Eleven RGAs were mapped at 19 loci on eight linkage groups of the common bean genetic map constructed at Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical. Genetic linkage was shown for eight RGAs with partial resistance to anthracnose, angular leaf spot (ALS) and Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV). RGA1 and RGA2 were associated with resistance loci to anthracnose and BGYMV and were part of two clusters of R genes previously described. A new major cluster was detected by RGA7 and explained up to 63.9% of resistance to ALS and has a putative contribution to anthracnose resistance. These results show the usefulness of RGAs as candidate genes to detect and eventually isolate numerous R genes in common bean.
Recently new heuristic genetic algorithms such as Treefinder and MetaGA have been developed to search for optimal trees in a maximum likelihood (ML) framework. In this study we combined these methods with other standard heuristic approaches such as ML and maximum parsimony hill-climbing searches and Bayesian inference coupled with Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques under homogeneous and mixed models of evolution to conduct an extensive phylogenetic analysis of the most abundant and widely distributed southern South American freshwater"crab,"the Aegla(Anomura: Aeglidae). A total of 167 samples representing 64 Aegla species and subspecies were sequenced for one nuclear (28S rDNA) and four mitochondrial (12S and 16S rDNA, COI, and COII) genes (5352 bp total). Additionally, six other anomuran species from the genera Munida,Pachycheles, and Uroptychus(Galatheoidea), Lithodes(Paguroidea), and Lomis(Lomisoidea) and the nuclear 18S rDNA gene (1964 bp) were included in preliminary analyses for rooting the Aegla tree. Nonsignificantly different phylogenetic hypotheses resulted from all the different heuristic methods used here, although the best scored topologies found under the ML hill-climbing, Bayesian, and MetaGA approaches showed considerably better likelihood scores (Delta> 54) than those found under the MP and Treefinder approaches. Our trees provided strong support for most of the recognized Aegla species except for A. cholchol,A. jarai,A. parana,A. marginata, A. platensis, and A. franciscana, which may actually represent multiple species. Geographically, the Aegla group was divided into a basal western clade (21 species and subspecies) composed of two subclades with overlapping distributions, and a more recent central-eastern clade (43 species) composed of three subclades with fairly well-recognized distributions. This result supports the Pacific-Origin Hypothesis postulated for the group; alternative hypotheses of Atlantic or multiple origins were significantly rejected by our analyses. Finally, we combined our phylogenetic results with previous hypotheses of South American paleodrainages since the Jurassic to propose a biogeographical framework of the Aegla radiation.
Quaternary glacial cycles have played an important role in shaping the biodiversity in temperate regions. This is well documented in Northern Hemisphere, but much less understood for Southern Hemisphere. We used mitochondrial DNA and nuclear elongation factor 1α intron sequences to examine the Pleistocene glacial impacts on the phylogeographical pattern of the freshwater crab Aegla alacalufi in Chilean Patagonia. Phylogenetic analyses, which separated the glaciated populations on eastern continent into a north group (seven populations) and a south group (one population), revealed a shallow phylogenetic structure in the north group but a deep one in the non-glaciated populations on western islands, indicating the significant influence of glaciation on these populations. Phylogenies also identified the Yaldad population on Chiloé Island as a potentially unrecognized new species. The non-glaciated populations showed higher among population genetic divergence than the glaciated ones, but lower population genetic diversity was not detected in the latter. The two glaciated groups, which diverged from the non-glaciated populations at ~96,800-29,500 years ago and ~104,200-73,800 years ago, respectively, seem to have different glacial refugia. Unexpectedly, the non-glaciated islands did not serve as refugia for them. Demographic expansion was detected in the glaciated north group, with a constant population increase after the last glacial maximum. Nested clade analyses suggest a possible colonization from western islands to eastern continent. After arriving on the continent and surviving the last glacial period there, populations likely have expanded from high to low altitude, following the flood of melting ice. Aegla alacalufi genetic diversity has been primarily affected by Pleistocene glaciation and minimally by drainage isolation.
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