Um dos mais complexos mecanismos de regulação da temperatura corpórea é encontrado entre os répteis, e nos lagartos, este mecanismo atinge um destacável grau de refinamento em que o comportamento é um fator preponderante. no presente artigo apresentamos uma revisão do conjunto de elementos envolvidos no comportamento de termorregulação em lagartos brasileiros. nesta ampla revisão abordamos aspectos como a termorregulação como processo fisiológico e comportamental nos lagartos, o efeito e a relação entre a filogenia e a temperatura corpórea em atividade, as fontes ambientais de calor, a termorregulação e os custos associados na regulação comportamental da temperatura corpórea, a complexa interrelação entre temperatura corpórea, intensidade de forrageamento e dieta, e a relação entre a termorregulação e outros aspectos da história de vida como o grau de herbivoria e o estado reprodutivo. Com base nas mais variadas fontes de informação disponíveis sobre regulação da temperatura corpórea em lagartos brasileiros, fornecemos também uma relevante revisão sobre o tema e um estado da arte do conhecimento sobre o comportamento de termorregulação nos lagartos brasileiros. Palavras-chave: Temperatura corpórea, intensidade de atividade, processos fisiológicos. ABSTRACT THERMOREGULATORY BEHAVIOR IN BRAZILIAN LIZARDS. reptiles present one of the most complex mechanisms found within vertebrates to regulate body temperature. in lizards, this regulation mechanism achieves a remarkable degree of refinement in which behavior plays a crucial role. The present review deals with a set of factors of thermoregulation in Brazilian lizards, illustrating it as the result of a physiological and behavioral process in lizards and discussing other factors such as the relationship between phylogeny and body temperature in activity, the environmental sources of heat, the costs of behaviors associated with thermoregulation, the complex relationships between body temperature, foraging intensity and diet, and the relationship between thermoregulation and some aspects of their life history such as degree of herbivory and reproductive condition. Based on various sources of information available on body temperature regulation by Brazilian lizards, we aimed at providing a comprehensive review on the subject of thermoregulatory behaviors in Brazilian lizards.
Data on species composition, richness, and density are presented for the leaf litter frog assemblage of an area of Atlantic Rainforest at the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Three sampling methods were used: plot sampling, visual encounter surveys, and pitfall traps. The local assemblage of leaf litter frogs was composed of 16 species, with the direct-developing species, Euparkerella brasiliensis (Parker, 1926), being the most abundant. The estimated density of the local leaf litter frog assemblage based on plot sampling was 17.1 ind/100 m² and the estimated overall leaf litter frog mass was 684.2 g/ha. The estimated density of leaf litter frogs at the present study is the highest currently reported for Atlantic Rainforest areas, which reinforces the idea of higher densities of leaf litter frogs in the Neotropical Region compared to the Old World tropics
The anurofauna inhabiting higher montane Atlantic forest areas in southeastern Brazil, which often attain heights of more than 2000 m, is still insufficiently known. In this study, we present data on anuran species composition and abundances in two high-altitude (i.e. > 1000 m) sites within the Parque Estadual dos Três Picos (PETP), in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Field surveys were done at altitudes between 1100 and 1900 m above sea level. We recorded 35 species during our study, adding 22 records to the set of anuran species previously known to occur within the PETP. The stability of the species accumulation curve, as well as the richness estimations, showed that the sampling methodology employed and the total sampling effort were appropriate to inventory the anuran assemblages of both sites. Direct-developing frogs such as Ischnocnema parva (Girard, 1853) (at the 1100-1400 m altitude site), and Brachycephalus garbeanus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920 (at the 1600-1900 m altitude site) were the most locally abundant species. None of the species recorded during the study is listed as threatened, though nine of them are currently considered endemic to the state of Rio de Janeiro. Furthermore, eight of the species recorded are likely restricted to high-altitude habitats. The relatively high diversity of anurans (some of them endemic to the state), the presence of species restricted to high-altitude habitats, and the occurrence of rare and presently undescribed species attest to the biological relevance of the studied areas within the PETP
ABSTRACT. Ischnocnema (Brachycephalidae) includes many species that are important members of the leaf litter frog communities in the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil. Ischnocnema parva (Girard, 1853) is endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest biome and is restricted to the forests of southeastern Brazil. Currently, the available information about the ecology of I. parva is scarce. We studied the diet, the habitat use, reproduction and density of I. parva in an area of Atlantic Rainforest clutches. Some ecological aspects such as diet and microhabitat use were similar to that observed for an insular population of I. parva, whereas reproductive traits differed. Thus, long term studies are necessary to understand the extent to which these differences are explained by environmental factors.
ABSTRACT. Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938 is a critically endangered lizard endemic to the restinga habitat of the state of Rio de Janeiro. We surveyed 25 restinga habitats in order to locate remaining populations, evaluate the status of the species, and determine the nature of local habitat degradation. We found remnant populations of L. lutzae in 18 restinga habitats of six municipalities. The conservation status of each population varied between areas: the population of Grumari, in Rio de Janeiro municipality, is the most preserved and the population of Praia do Forte, in Cabo Frio, is the most disturbed. No L. lutzae were found in Niterói municipality. The most destructive type of habitat degradation identified was the removal of beach vegetation associated with the construction of coastal roads and/or sidewalks, destruction of the vegetation due to trampling, vehicle traffic and garbage dumping. Our data revealed that generally, beach habitats under a larger number of impact sources were those with smaller population sizes of L. lutzae. We consider that the most effective conservation measure for L. lutzae is the strict protection of its habitat, with restoration of the original beach vegetation. Finally, we recommend vegetation recovery to be followed by a program of reintroduction of the species in localities where it has been eradicated.
Tropidurus species commonly prey on arthropods, but they may also feed on vertebrates and plant material. The lizard Tropidurus oreadicus (Tropiduridae) is common in open vegetation habitats and generally has sexual dimorphism. In this study we analyzed the diet of T. oreadicus at Serra dos Carajás, Pará, in the north of Brazil. Snout-vent length (SVL) and jaw width (JW) were taken for 34 lizards. There was a significant difference in SVL and in JW, with males being larger than females. All lizards analyzed contained food in their stomachs. The diet of T. oreadicus at Serra dos Carajás was characterized by the consumption of a relative wide spectrum of food item categories (21 types of items), consisting of arthropods, part of one vertebrate and plant material, which characterizes the diet of a generalist predator. Volumetrically, the most important items in the diet of both sexes of T. oreadicus were flowers (M = 61.7%; F = 33%) and orthopterans (M = 1.7%; F = 3.5%). Ants were the most frequently consumed (100% for both sexes) and the most numerous (M = 94.5%; F = 89.4%) food item. Flowers also were frequently consumed (M = 91.7%; F = 54.5%), with their relative consumption differing significantly between sexes. There was not a significant sexual difference in prey volume, neither in number of preys per stomach, nor in type of prey ingested. There was no relationship between lizard jaw width and the mean volume of prey. The data showed that T. oreadicus is a relatively generalist lizard in terms of diet and that consumes large volumes of plant material, especially flowers of one species of genus Cassia. Keywords: Tropiduridae, feeding ecology, Tropidurus oreadicus. A dieta de T. oreadicus da Serra dos Carajás foi caracterizada pelo consumo de uma grande variedade de categorias de itens alimentares (21 tipos de itens), consistindo de artrópodes, de parte de um vertebrado e de material vegetal, o que caracteriza a dieta de um predador generalista. Volumetricamente, os itens mais importantes na dieta de ambos os sexos de T. oreadicus foram flores (M = 61,7%; F = 33%) e ortópteros (M = 1,7%; F = 3,5%). Formigas foram os itens mais freqüentemente consumidos (100% para ambos os sexos) e os mais numerosos (M = 94,5%; F = 89,4%). Flores também foram freqüentemente consumidas (M = 91,7%; F = 54,5%), diferindo significativamente em consumo entre os sexos. Não houve diferenças sexuais em volume, em número, nem em tipos de presas ingeridas. Não houve relação entre largura da mandíbula dos lagartos e a média do volume de presas. Os dados mostraram que T. oreadicus é um lagarto relativamente generalista em termos de dieta e que consome grande volume de material vegetal, especialmente flores de uma espécie do gênero Cassia. Ecologia alimentar do lagartoPalavras-chave: Tropiduridae, ecologia alimentar, Tropidurus oreadicus.
The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is one of the richest and most threatened biomes on Earth. In the state of Rio de Janeiro it is presently reduced to less than 20% of its original extension, and faunal lists are needed for several areas. Here we present a species list of amphibians and reptiles for the Estação Ecológica Estadual do Paraíso (EEEP), a forest reserve located in the central portion of Rio de Janeiro state. The list is based on both primary (gathered during a short-term survey by the authors) and secondary data (obtained from a local reference collection). A total of 30 amphibian (of which six are endemic to the state) and 29 reptile species were recorded from the area (of which 25 and 13, respectively, were obtained by primary data). No threatened or presumably threatened species were present among the herpetofauna of the EEEP.
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