There is a major, unmet need for the treatment of cancer pain, and new targets and medicines are required. The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), a cation channel expressed by nociceptors, is activated by oxidizing substances to mediate pain‐like responses in models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. As cancer is known to increase oxidative stress, the role of TRPA1 was evaluated in a mouse model of cancer pain. Fourteen days after injection of B16‐F10 murine melanoma cells into the plantar region of the right hind paw, C57BL/6 mice exhibited mechanical and thermal allodynia and thigmotaxis behavior. While heat allodynia was partially reduced in TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)‐deficient mice, thigmotaxis behavior and mechanical and cold allodynia were absent in TRPA1‐deficient mice. Deletion of TRPA1 or TRPV1 did not affect cancer growth. Intrathecal TRPA1 antisense oligonucleotides and two different TRPA1 antagonists (HC‐030031 or A967079) transiently attenuated thigmotaxis behavior and mechanical and cold allodynia. A TRPV1 antagonist (capsazepine) attenuated solely heat allodynia.
NADPH oxidase activity and hydrogen peroxide levels were increased in hind paw skin
14 days after c
ancer cell inoculation
. The antioxidant, α‐lipoic acid, attenuated mechanical and cold allodynia and thigmotaxis behavior, but not heat allodynia. Whereas TRPV1,
an oxidative stress‐independent pathway, contributes partially to heat hypersensitivity, oxidative stress‐dependent activation of TRPA1 plays a key role in mediating thigmotaxis behavior and mechanical and cold allodynia in a cancer pain model. TRPA1 antagonists might be beneficial in the treatment of cancer pain.
This study investigated the influence of neonatal handling on behavioral and biochemical consequences of chronic mild stress (CMS) in adulthood. Male rat pups were submitted to daily tactile stimulation (TS) or maternal separation (MS), from postnatal day 1 (PND1) to postnatal day 21 (PND21), for 10 min/day. In adulthood, half the number of animals were exposed to CMS for 3 weeks and submitted to behavioral testing, including sucrose preference (SP), elevated plus maze (EPM), and defensive burying tasks (DBTs), followed by biochemical assessments. CMS reduced SP, increased anxiety in EPM and DBT, and increased adrenal weight. In addition, CMS decreased plasma vitamin C (VIT C) levels and increased protein carbonyl (PC) levels, catalase (CAT) activity in hippocampus and cortex, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in cortex. In contrast, both forms of neonatal handling were able to prevent reduction in SP, anxiety behavior in DBT, and CMS-induced adrenal weight increase. Furthermore, they were also able to prevent plasma VIT C reduction, hippocampal PC levels increase, CAT activity increase in hippocampus and cortex, and SOD levels increase in cortex following CMS. Only TS was able to prevent CMS-induced anxiety symptoms in EPM and PC levels in cortex. Taken together, these findings show the protective role of neonatal handling, especially TS, which may enhance ability to cope with stressful situations in adulthood.
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It is well known that events which occur in early life exert a significant influence on brain development, what can be reflected throughout adulthood. This study was carried out in order to assess the influence of neonatal tactile stimulation (TS) on behavioral and morphological responses related to depression-like and anxiety-like behaviors, assessed following the administration of sertraline (SERT), a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI). Male pups were submitted to daily TS, from postnatal day 8 (PND8) to postnatal day 14 (PND14), for 10 min every day. On PND50, adult animals were submitted to forced swimming training (15 min). On PND51, half of each experimental group (UH and TS) received a single sub-therapeutic dose of sertraline (SER, 0.3mg/kg body weight, i.p.) or its vehicle (C, control group). Thirty minutes after injection, depression-like behaviors were quantified in forced swimming test (FST, for 5 min). On the following day, anxiety-like behaviors were assessed in elevated plus maze (EPM), followed by biochemical assessments. TS per se increased swimming time, decreasing immobility time in FST. Besides, TS per se was able to increase frequency of head dipping and time spent in the open arms of EPM, resulting in decreased anxiety index. In addition, groups exposed to TS showed decreased plasma levels of corticosterone per se. Interestingly, while TS exposure significantly potentiated the antidepressant activity of a subtherapeutic dose of SERT, this drug was able to exacerbate TS-induced anxiolytic activity, as observed in FST and EPM, respectively. Decreased plasma levels of both corticosterone and cortisol in animals exposed to TS and treated with SERT are able to confirm the interesting interaction between this neonatal handling and the antidepressant drug. From our results, we conclude that neonatal TS is able to exert beneficial influence on the ability to cope with stressful situations in adulthood, preventing depression and favorably modulating the action of antidepressant drugs.
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