According to the World Health Organization (WHO), anemia is the most common disease, affecting >1.5 billion people worldwide. Furthermore, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) accounts for 50% of cases of anemia. IDA is common during pregnancy and the postpartum period, and can lead to serious maternal and fetal complications. The aim of this report was to present the experiences of a multidisciplinary expert group, and to establish reference guidelines for the optimal diagnosis and treatment of IDA during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Studies and guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of IDA published in Turkish and international journals were reviewed. Conclusive recommendations were made by an expert panel aiming for a scientific consensus. Measurement of serum ferritin has the highest sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of IDA unless there is a concurrent inflammatory condition. The lower threshold value for hemoglobin (Hb) in pregnant women is <11 g/dL during the 1st and 3rd trimesters, and <10.5 g/dL during the 2nd trimester. In postpartum period a Hb concentration <10 g/dL indicates clinically significant anemia. Oral iron therapy is given as the first-line treatment for IDA. Although current data are limited, intravenous (IV) iron therapy is an alternative therapeutic option in patients who do not respond to oral iron therapy, have adverse reactions, do not comply with oral iron treatment, have a very low Hb concentration, and require rapid iron repletion. IV iron preparations can be safely used for the treatment of IDA during pregnancy and the postpartum period, and are more beneficial than oral iron preparations in specific indications.
Background: Nutrition status prior to conception and during pregnancy and infancy seems to have an influence on the disease risk in adulthood (early nutrition/developmental programming). We aimed to review the current knowledge on the role of micronutrients in early nutrition programming and its implications for healthcare. Summary of Findings: Globally and even in high-income countries where a balanced diet is generally accessible, an inadequate maternal micronutrient status is common. This may induce health problems in the mother and foetus/newborn both immediately and in later life. Pregnant women and those who may become pregnant should aim to achieve a satisfactory micronutrient status from a well-balanced diet, and where necessary from additional supplements. Key Messages: We emphasise the need for a call to action for healthcare providers and policymakers to better educate women of child-bearing age regarding the short- and long-term benefits of an appropriate micronutrient status. The role of micronutrient status in early nutrition programming needs to be emphasized more to address the still limited awareness of the potential long-term health repercussions of suboptimal micronutrient supply during pregnancy.
Results of this study confirm that the nicotine leads to significant direct genotoxic effects in human fetal cells in vitro. We speculate that there is an association between prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke and in utero aneuploidies.
Introduction: To evaluate the role of three-dimensional (3D) sonography in the prenatal detection of the upper pole in fetuses with spina bifida. Material and Methods: Women admitted to a tertiary center with pregnancies with isolated open spina bifida were enrolled in the study. All fetuses had 3D sonography to predict the lesion level. The exact lesion level was ascertained using radiography and/or autopsy following the delivery at term or abortion. Results: Forty-eight cases were eligible for this study. Twenty-eight fetuses were diagnosed in the second trimester and the lesion level was precisely predicted in 24 (86%) of them. In 14 (70%) of the 20 fetuses diagnosed in the last trimester, the level was accurately determined. The remaining 10 fetuses, from both the second and third trimesters, were found to have a lesion level that was within one segment of the predicted lesion level. The correct matching rate was 38/48 (79%), and agreement within one segment was achieved in all cases. Discussion: According to our data, 3D ultrasound is useful for the prenatal determination of lesion level in spina bifida, which is an important prognostic factor.
Renal angiomyolipoma is a rare tumor that can be either sporadic or found together with tuberous sclerosis or pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis. These tumors are hormone sensitive and therefore tend to grow during pregnancy and their main complication is the risk of rupture. Optimal management is still controversial because there are very few cases reported in the literature. We expect that the case of our patient, who delivered her baby vaginally at 36 weeks of gestation and underwent definitive treatment (nephrectomy) thereafter, to further enhance the knowledge about the management of these rare tumors during pregnancy.
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