Training in microsurgical neuroanatomy is a priority for neurosurgical education. During the 20th century, microsurgical laboratories arose and provided a way to develop surgical skills. Few reports addressed the assembly, construction, and details of a training laboratory.
We have conducted a literature review and searched legislation on the need to plan the structure of the laboratory.
We projected and built a laboratory through a public-private partnership. High-tech workstations and instruments were planned to meet the needs of residents, fellows, and student. All steps and materials were in accordance with the Brazilian legislation and articles previously selected.
We described our experience and demonstrated the implementation of a micro neurosurgical skills laboratory.
Infectious complications of the central nervous system secondary to endovascular procedures have rarely been reported. However, the number of complications has grown exponentially owing to the popularization of these procedures. The success rate of these procedures varies with the pathology, the patient, and surgical performance. Although brain abscesses have been extensively reported, their presence after endovascular procedures has not been described in detail in the literature. We present a case of brain abscess induced by embolization of an arteriovenous malformation (AVM), discuss the main indications, techniques, procedural complications, and review the associated literature.
A 13-year-old boy presented to us with a history of hemorrhagic stroke secondary to a cerebral AVM rupture. He underwent incomplete AVM resection (2014), with subsequent incomplete embolization (2017), and permanence of the endovenous catheter as a procedural complication. Physical examination revealed purulent exudate through the cervical surgical wound. We performed cervicotomy to remove the catheter but had no success in removing the intracranial material segment. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with a brain abscess (2018) and treated with antibiotics. Our team performed resection of the residual AVM, abscess, and the catheter-associated with the region.
The patient showed significant clinical improvement after surgical resection of the malformation. No residual lesions were observed in the imaging examinations. Further, we reviewed the literature to find other cases of similar complications and their association with the endovascular procedure. We did not find complications in patients younger than the one presented in this case. Factors such as incomplete embolisation increase the risk of unfavourable outcomes.
Posterior fossa arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) can be a challenging disease, especially those large in size. AVMs can be treated with a combination of endovascular treatment and microsurgery. Here, the authors present the case of a 16-year-old female patient with progressive dizziness and episodic syncope. The workup of the patient showed a hemispheric cerebellar AVM, Spetzler-Martin grade IV. She underwent combined treatment (endovascular and microsurgery) with no complications and cure of the malformation.The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/rNw_Kyd76Mg
Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are relatively uncommon congenital vascular anomalies, and only 7–15% of AVMs occur in the posterior fossa. Most posterior fossa AVMs clinically present with hemorrhage and are associated with a high risk of neurological deficits and mortality. These malformations are associated with a high incidence of flow-related aneurysms. Endovascular treatment of infratentorial AVMs is challenging in pediatric patients.
We describe an 11-year-old female adolescent with cerebellar syndrome [Video 1], who was diagnosed with a cerebellomesencephalic fissure AVM. We observed a sequential increase in the size of the AVM after multiple sessions of endovascular treatment and performed successful microsurgical resection of the lesion.
This illustrative video highlights the role of microsurgery as a feasible therapeutic strategy for complete resection of cerebellar AVMs after endovascular embolization.
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