Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are heterogeneous disorders, involving a large number of conditions, the approach to which continues to pose an enormous challenge for pulmonologists. The 2012 Brazilian Thoracic Association ILD Guidelines were established in order to provide Brazilian pulmonologists with an instrument that can facilitate the management of patients with ILDs, standardizing the criteria used for the diagnosis of different conditions and offering guidance on the best treatment in various situations. The objective of this article was to briefly describe the highlights of those guidelines.Keywords: Lung diseases, interstitial; Guidelines as topic; Brazil. ResumoAs doenças pulmonares intersticiais (DPIs) são afecções heterogêneas, envolvendo um elevado número de condições, cuja abordagem ainda é um grande desafio para o pneumologista. As Diretrizes de DPIs da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia, publicadas em 2012, foram estabelecidas com o intuito de fornecer aos pneumologistas brasileiros um instrumento que possa facilitar a abordagem dos pacientes com DPIs, padronizando-se os critérios utilizados para a definição diagnóstica das diferentes condições, além de orientar sobre o melhor tratamento nas diferentes situações. Esse artigo teve como objetivo descrever resumidamente os principais destaques dessas diretrizes.Descritores: Doenças pulmonares intersticiais; Guias como assunto; Brasil.
Diffuse cystic lung diseases are characterized by cysts in more than one lung lobe, the cysts originating from various mechanisms, including the expansion of the distal airspaces due to airway obstruction, necrosis of the airway walls, and parenchymal destruction. The progression of these diseases is variable. One essential tool in the evaluation of these diseases is HRCT, because it improves the characterization of pulmonary cysts (including their distribution, size, and length) and the evaluation of the regularity of the cyst wall, as well as the identification of associated pulmonary and extrapulmonary lesions. When combined with clinical and laboratory findings, HRCT is often sufficient for the etiological definition of diffuse lung cysts, avoiding the need for lung biopsy. The differential diagnoses of diffuse cystic lung diseases are myriad, including neoplastic, inflammatory, and infectious etiologies. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, and follicular bronchiolitis are the most common diseases that produce this CT pattern. However, new diseases have been included as potential determinants of this pattern.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a type of chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia, of unknown etiology, which is associated with a progressive decrease in pulmonary function and with high mortality rates. Interest in and knowledge of this disorder have grown substantially in recent years. In this review article, we broadly discuss distinct aspects related to the diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We list the current diagnostic criteria and describe the therapeutic approaches currently available, symptomatic treatments, the action of new drugs that are effective in slowing the decline in pulmonary function, and indications for lung transplantation.
INTRODUCTION:The functional evaluation has become increasingly important in the understanding and management of patients with interstitial lung diseases. The cardiopulmonary exercise test and the six‐minute walk test (6MWT), through their isolated variables, have been used to do this evaluation, with some limitations.OBJECTIVES:We proposed a new composite index (desaturation distance ratio using continuous peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) and the distance walked as a more reliable tool for doing a functional evaluation of these patients.METHODS:6MWT was performed by interstitial lung diseases patients and controls. Analyzed parameters were walked distance and desaturation area (DAO2), obtained by taking the difference between maximal SpO2 possible (100%) and patient's SpO2 every 2 seconds. desaturation distance ratio was calculated using the ratio between DAO2 and distance walked.RESULTS:Forty‐nine interstitial lung diseases patients and 11 control subjects completed the protocol. The mean (SD) age was 60 (12) years and 65 (9) years, respectively (p:NS). Data obtained from 6MWT showed a significant statistical difference between interstitial lung diseases patients and controls: mean walked distance (430 and 602 meters, respectively); SpO2 minimal maintained at least 10 seconds ‐ SpO2 min (85% and 94%, respectively), and median desaturation distance ratio (10 and 2.5, respectively). A correlation analysis, considering interstitial lung diseases patients, revealed the best correlation between desaturation distance ratio and DLco (r = ‐ 0.72; p<0.001), being the correlation between SpO2 min and DLco of 0.61 (p<0.001) and among walked distance and DLco of 0.58 (p<0.05).CONCLUSION:Desaturation distance ratio is a promising concept and a more reliable physiologic tool to assess pulmonary diseases characterized by involvement of the alveolar‐capillary membrane, such as interstitial lung diseases.
Although we were not able to prove a causal relationship between esophageal and pulmonary involvement, our series revealed a strong association between esophageal motor dysfunction and interstitial lung disease in patients with mixed connective tissue disease.
BackgroundLymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is included within group 5 of the current PH classification (unclear multifactorial mechanisms). However, data regarding the occurrence of PH in LAM are scarce. The aims of the study were to describe the prevalence and characteristics of PH in a large cohort of LAM patients with different levels of severity, and to evaluate the role of echocardiography and carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (DLCO) as screening methods for PH in LAM.MethodsOne hundred five LAM patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography, pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and 6-min walk test (6MWT). Patients with a suspicion of PH on echocardiography, defined by the presence of estimated systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) over 35 mmHg or PFT showing DLco below 40% of the predicted value, underwent right heart catheterisation to confirm the diagnosis of PH.ResultsEight patients (7.6%) had PH confirmed on right heart catheterisation, six patients (5.7%) had a pre-capillary pattern and two patients (1.9%) had a post-capillary profile. Only one patient (1%) had mean PAP over 35 mmHg. Patients with PH had lower FEV1 and DLCO in PFTs and greater oxygen desaturation and dyspnea intensity during 6MWT compared with those without PH. In 63% of the patients with confirmed PH, the right heart catheterisation was performed based only on DLCO result.ConclusionsThe prevalence of PH is low in LAM patients. Pulmonary hypertension in LAM is typically mild and significantly associated with pulmonary parenchymal involvement. Carbon monoxide diffusion capacity significantly improved the identification of PH in LAM patients.
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a cystic lung disease frequently associated with reduced exercise capacity. The aim of this study was to assess safety and efficacy of pulmonary rehabilitation in LAM.This controlled clinical trial included 40 patients with LAM and a low physical activity level. The pulmonary rehabilitation programme comprised 24 aerobic and muscle strength training sessions and education. The primary outcome was exercise capacity (endurance time during a constant work rate exercise test). Secondary outcomes included health-related quality of life (St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ)), 6-min walking distance (6MWD), dyspnoea, peak oxygen consumption (V'O2 ), daily physical activity (pedometer), symptoms of anxiety and depression, lung function and peripheral muscle strength (one-repetition maximum).The baseline characteristics were well balanced between the groups. The pulmonary rehabilitation group exhibited improvements in the following outcomes versus controls: endurance time (median (interquartile range) 169 (2-303) s versus -33 (-129-39) s; p=0.001), SGRQ (median (interquartile range) -8 (-16-2) versus 2 (-4-5); p=0.002) and 6MWD (median (interquartile range) 59 (13-81) m versus 20 (-12-30) m; p=0.002). Dyspnoea, peak V'O2 , daily physical activity and muscle strength also improved significantly. No serious adverse events were observed.Pulmonary rehabilitation is a safe intervention and improves exercise capacity, dyspnoea, daily physical activity, quality of life and muscle strength in LAM.
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