RESUMO A dislipidemia é um achado comum, porém não determinante, na síndrome metabólica equina (SME). O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar a dislipidemia em animais obesos com risco de SME. Para isso, 18 éguas foram alocadas em grupos, de acordo com escore corporal (EC) de 1 a 9: no grupo ideal, animais com EC de 4,5 a 5,5 (n= 6), no grupo sobrepeso, com EC de 6 a 7 (n= 6) e no grupo obeso, animais com EC de 7,5 a 9 (n= 6). Coletaram-se amostras de sangue em jejum de concentrado para determinação de triglicerídeos, colesterol total, glicemia e concentração de insulina. Valores preditivos de sensibilidade à insulina (RISQI) e de secreção β-pancreática (MIRG) foram calculados. O grupo obeso apresentou níveis maiores em relação aos outros grupos de triglicerídeos (P=0,001) e acima do ideal em concentrações de colesterol (P=0,012). Não foi observada diferença nas concentrações plasmáticas de glicose (P=0,53), de insulina (P=0,10) ou de RISQI (P=0,46). Houve diferença entre os grupos nos valores de MIRG (P=0,048), tendo o grupo obeso obtido resultados maiores quando comparado com o grupo ideal. O aumento do EC foi associado ao aumento das concentrações plasmáticas de colesterol e triglicerídeos, o que caracteriza um estado de dislipidemia e de elevação da secreção das células β-pancreáticas.
Objective: The aim of this study was evaluation of clinical and hematological and hemogasometric parameters resulting from experimentally induced furosemide dehydration in horses. Methods: Six adult male horses were submitted to the protocol of induction of dehydration with furosemide and kept in water and feeding fasting for 72 hours. Clinical, hematological and hemogasometric examinations were performed every 12 hours. Clinical parameters were correlated with body weight loss to identify those who best represent the clinical picture of dehydration. Results: Mean weight loss was 13.5% after 72 hours. The capillary refill time showed the best correlation index (r) of 0.95, (p-value = 0.001), followed by BUN , r = 0.94, heart rate, with negative correlation with weight loss, r = -0.91 (p-value = 0.005), packed cell volume, r = 0.78 (p-value = 0.038 Plasma protein has further increased to 8.4 ± 0.5 g / dL and urea increased by over 100% at the end of the study. Was also observed an increase in sodium concentration and progressive decrease in chloride and potassium concentrations during the evaluated period. The pH rose from 12 hours and remained high until complete the 72 hours. There was also an increase in plasma bicarbonate concentration from 24 hours, exceeding the reference limits. Conclusions: Given these results, it can be concluded that the dehydration protocol induced a light hypertonic dehydration, confirmed by the slight increase in plasma osmolarity, hyperproteinemia, hypochloremia with metabolic alkalosis, confirmed by the average values of strong ions difference during throughout the dehydration process.
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Background: Hemangiosarcoma is a malignant neoplasm of endothelial cells with an infiltrative growth pattern. Hemangiosarcomas are frequently reported in canines and rare in felines, sheep, goats, swine, horses and cattle. Few cases of hemangiosarcoma were reported in cattle. In the present report, we describe the clinicopathological findings of a bovine muscle hemangiosarcoma.Case: A 6-year-old, Girolando cow from the Dairy Cattle Sector of the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropédica, presented sternal decubitus. Clinical signs were markedly pale mucous membranes, moderate dehydration, respiratory distress, and increased heart rate. The hematological examination revealed intense regenerative anemia. Due to the worsening of the clinical condition, the cow was submitted to euthanasia. The necropsy and collection of various fragments of organs were performed, which were sent to the “Setor de Anatomia Patológica” (SAP-UFRRJ). Tissues were fixed in 10 % buffered formalin, routinely processed for histology and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE). The external mucous membranes were markedly pale. Multifocal areas of 1.5 x 1.0 cm, irregular and dark red were observed dissecting the quadratus lumborum muscle (hemangiosarcoma) fibers. These neoplasms were associated with an extensive cruoric clot adhered to the muscle fibers. The extensive, red, friable mass measured approximately 76 x 55 x 20 cm on the serous surfaces of the organs of the peritoneal cavity (hemoperitoneum). The spleen was moderately reduced. The bone marrow was markedly pale. Histologically, it was observed that there was an extensive proliferation of endothelial cells in the quadratus lumbar muscle mass dissecting the epimysium and perimysium. Endothelial cells had moderate pleomorphism, organized in vascular channels and forming multifocally solid areas with a significant amount of eosinophilic fibrillar material (fibrin). Sections of muscle neoplasm were subjected to immunohistochemistry with anti-von Willebrand factor primary antibody, which showed a multifocal moderate cytoplasmic immunolabeling of neoplastic endothelial cells.Discussion: There are few reports of striated muscle hemangiosarcoma in cattle. Muscular hemangiosarcomas were reported in a 4-month-old calf in the left cervical trapezius muscle and a 6-year-old Holstein cow with left pelvic limb mass lateral and distal to the knee. Some reports presented hemangiosarcoma in the iliopsoas muscle, left cervical trapezius muscle, pelvic limb muscles and right cervical muscle of the bovine. In the presented report, hemoperitoneum occurred as a result of hemorrhages from muscle hemangiosarcoma. Other studies have demonstrated cavity hemorrhages in joint, pelvic, pleural and cranial cavities associated with hemangiosarcoma. Hemangiosarcoma with regenerative anemia must be distinguished from other diseases that cause anemia. The main differential diagnoses of bovine with anemia are vena cava syndrome, coumarin derivatives poisoning, acute poisoning by Pteridium spp., tick fever, anaplasmosis, babesiosis and trypanosomiasis. Hemangiosarcoma should be differentiated from other lesions as hemangioma, vascular tumor of lymphatic endothelium and perivascular wall tumors. Cases with poorly differentiated morphology should be submitted for immunohistochemistry. In the present hemangiosarcoma case, we have used the von Willebrand factor for immunohistochemistry diagnosis. Expression of angiogenic growth factors such as CD31, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) have also been used in the diagnosis of vascular proliferation lesions. Hemangiosarcoma in cattle should be included mainly in the differential diagnosis of diseases that cause acute anemia in cattle.Keywords: cattle, neoplasia, hemangiosarcoma, hemoperitoneum, anemia.
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