This paper examines the empirical analysis of the five main hypotheses subsumed under the generic term fiscal illusion. After placing these hypotheses within a common theoretical framework, the paper attempts to evaluate empirical research into the revenue-complexity hypothesis, the revenueelasticity hypothesis, the flypaper effect, renter illusion, and debt illusion.
PurposeAn embryonic empirical literature on Australian policing has established that commitment levels of police officers are comparatively low. This paper seeks to add to this literature.Design/methodology/approachThe paper applies Allen and Meyer's three‐component model of organizational commitment, in conjunction with the Eisenberger et al.'s model of perceived organizational support, to a sample of 351 sworn police officers and student officers.FindingsThe results seem to confirm earlier Australian findings since organizational commitment among the sample of respondents was also found to be low. It is suggested that additional skills training and tuition subsidies for officers could enhance organizational commitment.Originality/valueThe paper provides useful information on levels of commitment among Australian police officers and suggestions on how organizational commitment can be enhanced.
Data envelopment analysis is used to measure the technical and scale efficiency of the domestic waste management function in 103 New South Wales local governments. After allowance is made for nondiscretionary environmental factors that may affect the provision of these local public services, such as congestion and the inability to operate machinery in densely populated urban areas, comparison of efficiency across geographic/demographic criteria is made. The results suggest that, on average, waste management inputs could be reduced to just over 65% of the current level based upon observable best‐practice, while productivity losses due to scale effects account for slightly over 15% of total inputs. The results also indicate that inefficiency in urban developed councils is largely the result of congestion and other collection difficulties encountered in densely populated areas, while inefficiency in regional and rural councils stems from an inability to attain an optimal scale of operations.
Controversy surrounds structural reform in local government, especially efforts aimed at involuntarily reducing the number of local authorities to secure scale economies. We examined whether scale economies exist in local government outlays by analyzing the expenditure of 152 New South Wales councils. Initially, council expenditure is characterized by scale economies. However, given the correlation between population and population density, it is important to determine whether the influence of population on expenditure is due to variations in population density. When areas are decomposed into subgroups on the basis of density, the evidence of scale economies largely disappears.
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About Emerald www.emeraldinsight.comEmerald is a global publisher linking research and practice to the benefit of society. The company manages a portfolio of more than 290 journals and over 2,350 books and book series volumes, as well as providing an extensive range of online products and additional customer resources and services.Emerald is both COUNTER 4 and TRANSFER compliant. The organization is a partner of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and also works with Portico and the LOCKSS initiative for digital archive preservation.Abstract This paper evaluates key developments in the social capital literature over the past decade. It then examines empirical work on the purported the link between social capital and economic performance. Although these results indicate that good governance and social cohesion make a measurable contribution to economic development, the offer little guidance for policy formulation. Early contributors to the social capital field were pessimistic about the ability of the state to stimulate social capital formation. More recently, there has been a groundswell of interest in the application of community development principles to foster social capital at the micro level. This paper incorporates a critical evaluation of the mainstream social capital literature from a social economics perspective. The various strands within the social economics tradition share a common concern with the "disembedding" of social context from mainstream economics.What is good, Phaedrus, and what is not good . . . need we ask anyone to tell us these things? (Pirsig, 1975).
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