Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Leguminosae) is frequently used in traditional medicine to treat inflammatory and allergic diseases. In this study, the main components (glycyrrhizin, 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid, isoliquiritin, and liquiritigenin) were isolated from licorice, and their anti-allergic effects, such as antiscratching behavior and IgE production-inhibitory activity, were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Liquiritigenin and 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid most potently inhibited the degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells induced by IgE with the antigen (DNP-HSA) and rat peritoneal mast cells induced by compound 48/80. Liquiritigenin and 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid potently inhibited the passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction as well as the scratching behavior in mice induced by compound 48/80. These components inhibited the production of IgE in ovalbumin-induced asthma mice but liquiritigenin had little effect. This suggests that the antiallergic effects of licorice are mainly due to glycyrrhizin, 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid, and liquiritigenin, which can relieve IgE-induced allergic diseases such as dermatitis and asthma.
Increasing evidence suggests that linker histone H1 can influence distinct cellular processes by acting as a gene-specific regulator. However, the mechanistic basis underlying such H1 specificity and whether H1 acts in concert with other chromatin-altering activities remain unclear. Here, we show that one of the H1 subtypes, H1.2, stably interacts with Cul4A E3 ubiquitin ligase and PAF1 elongation complexes, and that such interaction potentiates target gene transcription via induction of H4K31ubiquitylation, H3K4me3 and H3K79me2. H1.2, Cul4A and PAF1 are functionally cooperative, as their individual knockdown results in the loss of the corresponding histone marks and the deficiency of target gene transcription. H1.2 interacts with the serine 2 phosphorylated form of RNAPII and we argue that it recruits the Cul4A and PAF1 complexes to target genes by bridging the interaction between the and the Cul4A and PAF1 complexes. These data define an expanded role for H1 in regulating gene transcription and illustrate its dependence on the elongation competence of RNAPII.
Adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) recruitment and activation play a critical role in obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance (IR). The mechanism regulating ATM activation and infiltration remains unclear. In this study, we found receptor interacting protein 140 (RIP140) can regulate the dynamics of ATM that contribute to adipose tissue remodeling. A high-fat diet (HFD) elevates RIP140 expression in macrophages. We generated mice with RIP140 knockdown in macrophages using transgenic and bone marrow transplantation procedures to blunt HFD-induced elevation in RIP140. We detected significant white adipose tissue (WAT) browning and improved systemic insulin sensitivity in these mice, particularly under an HFD feeding. These mice have decreased circulating monocyte population and altered ATM profile in WAT (a dramatic reduction in inflammatory classically activated macrophages [M1] and expansion in alternatively activated macrophages [M2]), which could improve HFD-induced IR. These studies suggest that reducing RIP140 expression in monocytes/macrophages can be a new therapeutic strategy in treating HFD-induced and inflammation-related diseases.
The root of Paeonia lactiflora PALL (PL, Family Paeoniaceae) has been used frequently as an antipyretic and anti-inflammatory agent in traditional medicines of Korea, China and Japan. To evaluate antiallergic effect of PL, we isolated its main constituents, paeoniflorin and paeonol, and evaluated in vivo their inhibitory effects against passive cutaenous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction induced by IgE-antigen complex and scratching behaviors induced by compound 48/80. PL, paeoniflorin and paeonol potently inhibited PCA reaction and scratching behaviors in mice. Paeoniflorin exhibited the most potent inhibition against scratching behaviors and the acetic acid-induced writhing syndrome in mice. Paeonol most potently inhibited PCA reaction and mast cells degranulation. These findings suggest that PL can improve IgE-induced anaphylaxis and scratching behaviors, and may be due to the effect of its constituents, paeoniflorin and paeonol.
The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is a model plant for genome research in Solanaceae, as well as for studying crop breeding. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are a valuable resource in genetic research and breeding. However, to do discovery of genome-wide SNPs, most methods require expensive high-depth sequencing. Here, we describe a method for SNP calling using a modified version of SAMtools that improved its sensitivity. We analyzed 90 Gb of raw sequence data from next-generation sequencing of two resequencing and seven transcriptome data sets from several tomato accessions. Our study identified 4,812,432 non-redundant SNPs. Moreover, the workflow of SNP calling was improved by aligning the reference genome with its own raw data. Using this approach, 131,785 SNPs were discovered from transcriptome data of seven accessions. In addition, 4,680,647 SNPs were identified from the genome of S. pimpinellifolium, which are 60 times more than 71,637 of the PI212816 transcriptome. SNP distribution was compared between the whole genome and transcriptome of S. pimpinellifolium. Moreover, we surveyed the location of SNPs within genic and intergenic regions. Our results indicated that the sufficient genome-wide SNP markers and very sensitive SNP calling method allow for application of marker assisted breeding and genome-wide association studies.
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