Cytokinins (CKs) are plant hormones affecting numerous developmental processes. Zeatin and its derivatives are the most important group of isoprenoid CKs. Zeatin occurs as two isomers: while trans-zeatin (transZ) was found to be a bioactive substance, cis-zeatin (cisZ) was reported to have a weak biological impact. Even though cisZ derivatives are abundant in various plant materials their biological role is still unknown. The comprehensive screen of land plants presented here suggests that cisZ-type CKs occur ubiquitously in the plant kingdom but their abundance might correlate with a strategy of life rather than with evolutionary complexity. Changing levels of transZ and cisZ during Arabidopsis ontogenesis show that levels of the two zeatin isomers can differ significantly during the life span of the plant, with cisZ-type CKs prevalent in the developmental stages associated with limited growth. A survey of the bioassays employed illustrates mild activity of cisZ and its derivatives. No cis↔trans isomerization, which would account for the effects of cisZ, was observed in tobacco cells and oat leaves. Differences in uptake between the two isomers resulting in distinct bioactivity have not been detected. In contrast, cisZ and transZ have a different metabolic fate in oat and tobacco. Analysis of a CK-degrading enzyme, cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX), reveals that Arabidopsis possesses two isoforms, AtCKX1 expressed in stages of active growth, and AtCKX7, both of which have the highest affinity for the cisZ isomer. Based on the present results, the conceivable function of cisZ-type CKs as delicate regulators of CK responses in plants under growth-limiting conditions is hypothesized.
2018): Distributions of vascular plants in the Czech Republic. Part 7. -Preslia 90: 425-531.The seventh part of the series on the distributions of vascular plants in the Czech Republic includes grid maps of 104 taxa in the genera Anthriscus, These maps were produced by taxonomic experts based on examined herbarium specimens, literature and field records. Many of the studied native species are on the national Red List. The genus most affected by decline in abundance is Gentianella, which includes six taxa extirpated from this country and six taxa critically threatened. Another group with a high proportion of endangered species comprises aquatic and wetland plants, which are represented by Callitriche hermaphroditica, Hydrocharis morsusranae, Najas minor, Pseudognaphalium luteoalbum and Stratiotes aloides. Other ecologically specialized groups include mainly montane wetland plants (Epilobium anagallidifolium, E. nutans and Rubus chamaemorus) and plants of rocky habitats (Polypodium interjectum, Trichomanes speciosum and Woodsia ilvensis). The previously rare Woodsia alpina has been extirpated from this country. Alien species mapped in this paper include both archaeophytes and neophytes, mainly from the genera Anthriscus, Cochlearia, Elodea, Epilobium, Hordeum and Phleum. Cochlearia danica, Dittrichia graveolens and Limonium gmelinii have recently colonized habitats along the roads treated by de-icing salt. Senecio inaequidens has also spread mainly along motorways. Epilobium adenocaulon is another successful neophyte; it is now widespread throughout this country and the most successful hybrid parent within the genus. Neophyte aquatics are represented by Egeria densa, Elodea canadensis and E. nuttallii. Spatial distributions and often also temporal dynamics of individual taxa are shown in maps and documented by records included in the Pladias database and available in electronic appendices. The maps are accompanied by comments that include additional information on the distribution, habitats, taxonomy and biology of the taxa. K e y w o r d s:
Rubus subgen. Rubus includes common European species with highly complicated taxonomy, ongoing hybridisation and facultative apomixis. Out of approximately 750 species recognised in Europe, only 3 diploid sexual species are known, along with numerous apomictic brambles that are highly connected to polyploidy. One exception of a tetraploid taxon is R. ser. Glandulosi, which is known for prevalent sexuality. This taxon highly hybridises with tetraploid members of R. ser. Discolores and leads to the origin of many hybridogenous populations and individuals. In this study, we verify reproduction modes in different diploid, triploid and tetraploid species of subgen. Rubus, with focus on taxa putatively involved in such hybridisation by applying flow cytometric seed screen analysis. We found 100 % sexuality of diploid species, whereas triploid species had obligate unreduced embryo sac development. In contrast, tetraploid plants had varying degrees of sexuality. Additionally, we discovered that R. bifrons has the ability to undergo a reproduction mode switch as a reaction to environmental conditions. These results provide insight into reproductive modes of European brambles and shed light on their reticulate evolution and speciation.
Dandelions (genus Taraxacum) comprise a group of sexual diploids and apomictic polyploids with a complicated reticular evolution. Apomixis (clonal reproduction through seeds) in this genus is considered to be obligate, and therefore represent a good model for studying the role of asexual reproduction in microevolutionary processes of apomictic genera. In our study, a total of 187 apomictic individuals composing a set of nine microspecies (sampled across wide geographic area in Europe) were genotyped for six microsatellite loci and for 162 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Our results indicated that significant genetic similarity existed within accessions with low numbers of genotypes. Genotypic variability was high among accessions but low within accessions. Clustering methods discriminated individuals into nine groups corresponding to their phenotypes. Furthermore, two groups of apomictic genotypes were observed, which suggests that they had different asexual histories. A matrix compatibility test suggests that most of the variability within accession groups was mutational in origin. However, the presence of recombination was also detected. The accumulation of mutations in asexual clones leads to the establishment of a network of clone mates. However, this study suggests that the clones primarily originated from the hybridisation between sexual and apomicts.
Remarkable intra-specific inter-population differences in nuclear DNA content were found between Bohemian and Pannonian populations of Koeleria macrantha var. majoriflora and between geographically isolated central and eastern Slovakian populations of K. tristis. These differences occur over a relatively small geographical scale.
One of the main driving forces of evolution and speciation in the highly apomictic subgenus Rubus in central Europe is sexuality in the series Glandulosi . Palaeovegetation data suggest that initial hybridizations took place over different time periods in the two studied regions, and that the successful origin and spread of apomictic microspecies of the series Radula took place over several millennia. Additionally, the cloning and sequencing show that standard evaluations of microsatellite repeat numbers underestimate genetic variability considering homoplasy in allele size.
This study aims at developing and characterizing new microsatellite primer pairs in Taraxacum officinale auct. to produce polymorphic markers for genetical and evolutionary studies on apomixis in this sexual‐apomictic complex. A total of 24 diploid plants were tested for allelic polymorphism and heterozygosity. Out of nine loci three deviated significantly from the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium expectations, probably due to the presence of null‐alleles. Successful cross‐species amplification was obtained for all markers in 29 Taraxacum microspecies from five sections.
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