Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a genetically heterogeneous vascular dysplasia with multiple telangiectases and arteriovenous malformations and it is caused by mutations in endoglin gene (ENG) (HHT1) and activin A receptor type II-like 1 gene (ACVRL1) (HHT2). We evaluated 111 patients with HHT from 34 families by history, examination, screening for vascular malformations, and sequencing of both genes. We found mutations in 26 of the 34 kindreds (76%) analyzed-54% were in ENG and 46% were in ACVRL1. Mutations in ACVRL1 cluster largely in exons 7 and 8, but ENG mutations were widely distributed within that gene. We found that epistaxis had an earlier onset in patients with HHT1 than those with HHT2, but the severity by middle ages was similar. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations were more frequent and on the average of larger size in HHT1. Hepatic vascular malformations were more common in patients with HHT2. Cerebral arteriovenous malformations were more common in patients with HHT1, but spinal arteriovenous malformations were seen only in patients with HHT2. Truncating mutations in ENG were associated with more affected organs and more severe hemorrhaging than were missense mutations. We conclude that HHT2 has a later onset than HHT1 and the former may disproportionately involve smaller vessels in tissues with more significant vascular remodeling.
A randomized, controlled clinical trial was performed with patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) to compare the effect of conventional therapy or inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) on oxygenation. Patients were randomized to either conventional therapy or conventional therapy plus iNO for 72 h. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) that iNO would improve oxygenation during the 72 h after randomization, as compared with conventional therapy; and (2) that iNO would increase the likelihood that patients would improve to the extent that the FI(O2) could be decreased by > or = 0.15 within 72 h after randomization. There were two major findings. First, That iNO as compared with conventional therapy increased Pa(O2)/FI(O2) at 1 h, 12 h, and possibly 24 h. Beyond 24 h, the two groups had an equivalent improvement in Pa(O2)/FI(O2). Second, that patients treated with iNO therapy were no more likely to improve so that they could be managed with a persistent decrease in FI(O2) > or = 0.15 during the 72 h following randomization (11 of 20 patients with iNO versus 9 of 20 patients with conventional therapy, p = 0.55). In patients with severe ARDS, our results indicate that iNO does not lead to a sustained improvement in oxygenation as compared with conventional therapy.
Introducing a 19-s alarm delay and automatically detecting suctioning, repositioning, oral care, and washing could reduce the number of ineffective and ignored alarms from 934 to 274. More reliable alarms could elicit more timely response, reduce workload, reduce noise pollution, and potentially improve patient safety.
Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in the regulation of renal vascular tone and tubular sodium transport. While the endothelial cell is a well known source of NO, recent studies suggest that tubular epithelial cells may constitutively generate NO'. An inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase which produces far greater quantities of NO' exists in some cell types. We sought to determine whether kidney epithelial cells exposed to cytokines could express an inducible nitric oxide synthase. Primary cultures of rat proximal tubule and inner medullary collecting duct cells generated NO on exposure to TNF-a and IFN-'y. NO* production by both cell types was inhibited by NM-monomethyl-L-arginine; this inhibition was partially reversed by the addition of excess L-arginine. Stimulation of kidney epithelial cells with TNF-a and IFN-"y dramatically increased the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA. In summary, renal proximal tubule and inner medullary collecting duct cells can produce NO via expression of an inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase. (J. Clin. Invest. 1993. 91:2138-2143
Because nitric oxide is being used to treat acute lung injury and because it may either reduce or potentiate oxidant-mediated vascular injury, we studied the effect of the nitric oxide donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D-penicillamine (SNAP) on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced injury to cultured rat lung microvascular endothelial cells (RLMVC). Cells were exposed to H2O2 through its enzymatic generation by glucose and glucose oxidase or by its direct application. Glucose oxidase exposure causes a concentration- and time-dependent increase in 51chromium (51Cr) release from RLMVC. Catalase, dimethylthiourea or deferoxamine protects against this oxidant injury. SNAP (100 microM) prevents the increase in 51Cr release resulting from glucose oxidase or direct application of H2O2. N-acetyl-D-penicillamine is ineffective. Photo-decayed SNAP slightly decreases the 51Cr release caused by glucose oxidase but not the injury produced by directly adding H2O2. Treatment with the guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) analogue 8-BrcGMP (1-10 mM) provides no protection. SNAP decreases in vitro the net oxidation of ferrous to fcrric iron by H2O2, the iron-catalyzed consumption of H2O2 in Fenton's reaction, the iron-mediated generation of hydroxyl radicals, and the Fe(2+)-H2O2-catalyzed peroxidation of lipid membranes. Providing exogenous nitric oxide dramatically prevents H2O2-mediated endothelial injury, likely by reducing iron-mediated oxidant generation and subsequent lipid peroxidation.
Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is increased in some inflammatory airway disorders but not in others such as cystic fibrosis and acute respiratory distress syndrome. NO can combine with superoxide ([Formula: see text]) to form peroxynitrite, which can decompose into nitrate. Activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) releasing[Formula: see text] could account for a reduction in exhaled NO in disorders such as cystic fibrosis. To test this hypothesis in vitro, we stimulated confluent cultures of LA-4 cells, a murine lung epithelial cell line, to produce NO. Subsequently, human PMNs stimulated to produce [Formula: see text] were added to the LA-4 cells. A gradual increase in NO in the headspace above the cultures was observed and was markedly reduced by the addition of PMNs. An increase in nitrate in the culture supernatant fluids was measured, but no increase in nitrite was detected. Superoxide dismutase attenuated the PMN effect, and xanthine/xanthine oxidase reproduced the effect. No changes in epithelial cell inducible NO synthase protein or mRNA were observed. These data demonstrate that [Formula: see text]released from PMNs can decrease NO by conversion to nitrate and suggest a potential mechanism for modulation of NO levels in vivo.
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