To understand the impact of gut microbes on human health and well-being it is crucial to assess their genetic potential. Here we describe the Illumina-based metagenomic sequencing, assembly and characterization of 3.3 million non-redundant microbial genes, derived from 576.7 gigabases of sequence, from faecal samples of 124 European individuals. The gene set, approximately 150 times larger than the human gene complement, contains an overwhelming majority of the prevalent (more frequent) microbial genes of the cohort and probably includes a large proportion of the prevalent human intestinal microbial genes. The genes are largely shared among individuals of the cohort. Over 99% of the genes are bacterial, indicating that the entire cohort harbours between 1,000 and 1,150 prevalent bacterial species and each individual at least 160 such species, which are also largely shared. We define and describe the minimal gut metagenome and the minimal gut bacterial genome in terms of functions present in all individuals and most bacteria, respectively.
The 1000 Genomes Project set out to provide a comprehensive description of common human genetic variation by applying whole-genome sequencing to a diverse set of individuals from multiple populations. Here we report completion of the project, having reconstructed the genomes of 2,504 individuals from 26 populations using a combination of low-coverage whole-genome sequencing, deep exome sequencing, and dense microarray genotyping. We characterized a broad spectrum of genetic variation, in total over 88 million variants (84.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 3.6 million short insertions/deletions (indels), and 60,000 structural variants), all phased onto high-quality haplotypes. This resource includes >99% of SNP variants with a frequency of >1% for a variety of ancestries. We describe the distribution of genetic variation across the global sample, and discuss the implications for common disease studies.
BackgroundThere is a rapidly increasing amount of de novo genome assembly using next-generation sequencing (NGS) short reads; however, several big challenges remain to be overcome in order for this to be efficient and accurate. SOAPdenovo has been successfully applied to assemble many published genomes, but it still needs improvement in continuity, accuracy and coverage, especially in repeat regions.FindingsTo overcome these challenges, we have developed its successor, SOAPdenovo2, which has the advantage of a new algorithm design that reduces memory consumption in graph construction, resolves more repeat regions in contig assembly, increases coverage and length in scaffold construction, improves gap closing, and optimizes for large genome.ConclusionsBenchmark using the Assemblathon1 and GAGE datasets showed that SOAPdenovo2 greatly surpasses its predecessor SOAPdenovo and is competitive to other assemblers on both assembly length and accuracy. We also provide an updated assembly version of the 2008 Asian (YH) genome using SOAPdenovo2. Here, the contig and scaffold N50 of the YH genome were ~20.9 kbp and ~22 Mbp, respectively, which is 3-fold and 50-fold longer than the first published version. The genome coverage increased from 81.16% to 93.91%, and memory consumption was ~2/3 lower during the point of largest memory consumption.
A high-throughput protocol was developed for the synthesis of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs). Twenty-five different ZIF crystals were synthesized from only 9600 microreactions of either zinc(II)/cobalt(II) and imidazolate/imidazolate-type linkers. All of the ZIF structures have tetrahedral frameworks: 10 of which have two different links (heterolinks), 16 of which are previously unobserved compositions and structures, and 5 of which have topologies as yet unobserved in zeolites. Members of a selection of these ZIFs (termed ZIF-68, ZIF-69, and ZIF-70) have high thermal stability (up to 390 degrees C) and chemical stability in refluxing organic and aqueous media. Their frameworks have high porosity (with surface areas up to 1970 square meters per gram), and they exhibit unusual selectivity for CO2 capture from CO2/CO mixtures and extraordinary capacity for storing CO2: 1 liter of ZIF-69 can hold approximately 83 liters of CO2 at 273 kelvin under ambient pressure.
The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas belongs to one of the most species-rich but genomically poorly explored phyla, the Mollusca. Here we report the sequencing and assembly of the oyster genome using short reads and a fosmid-pooling strategy, along with transcriptomes of development and stress response and the proteome of the shell. The oyster genome is highly polymorphic and rich in repetitive sequences, with some transposable elements still actively shaping variation. Transcriptome studies reveal an extensive set of genes responding to environmental stress. The expansion of genes coding for heat shock protein 70 and inhibitors of apoptosis is probably central to the oyster's adaptation to sessile life in the highly stressful intertidal zone. Our analyses also show that shell formation in molluscs is more complex than currently understood and involves extensive participation of cells and their exosomes. The oyster genome sequence fills a void in our understanding of the Lophotrochozoa.Oceans cover approximately 71% of the Earth's surface and harbour most of the phylum diversity of the animal kingdom. Understanding marine biodiversity and its evolution remains a major challenge. The Pacific oyster C. gigas (Thunberg, 1793) is a marine bivalve belonging to the phylum Mollusca, which contains the largest number of described marine animal species 1 . Molluscs have vital roles in the functioning of marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems, and have had major effects on humans, primarily as food sources but also as sources of dyes, decorative pearls and shells, vectors of parasites, and biofouling or destructive agents. Many molluscs are important fishery and aquaculture species, as well as models for studying neurobiology, biomineralization, ocean acidification and adaptation to coastal environments under climate change 2,3 . As the most speciose member of the Lophotrochozoa, phylum Mollusca is central to our understanding of the biology and evolution of this superphylum of protostomes.As sessile marine animals living in estuarine and intertidal regions, oysters must cope with harsh and dynamically changing environments. Abiotic factors such as temperature and salinity fluctuate wildly, and toxic metals and desiccation also pose serious challenges. Filter-feeding oysters face tremendous exposure to microbial pathogens. Oysters do have a notable physical line of defence against predation and desiccation in the formation of thick calcified shells, a key evolutionary innovation making molluscs a successful group. However, acidification of the world's oceans by uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide poses a potentially serious threat to this ancient adaptation 4 . Understanding biomineralization and molluscan shell formation is, thus, a major area of interest 5 . Crassostrea gigas is also an interesting model for developmental biology owing to its mosaic development with typical molluscan stages, including trochophore and veliger larvae and metamorphosis.A complete genome sequence of C. gigas would enable a more th...
The genome of the mesopolyploid crop species Brassica rapaThe Brassica rapa Genome Sequencing Project Consortium 1
Abstract:The Brassicaceae family which includes Arabidopsis thaliana, is a natural priority for reaching beyond botanical models to more deeply sample angiosperm genomic and functional diversity. Here we report the draft genome sequence and its annoation of Brassica rapa, one of the two ancestral species of oilseed rape. We modeled 41,174 protein-coding genes in the B. rapa genome. B. rapa has experienced only the second genome triplication reported to date, with its close relationship to A. thaliana providing a useful outgroup for investigating many consequences of triplication for its structural and functional evolution. The extent of gene loss (fractionation) among triplicated genome segments varies, with one copy containing a greater proportion of genes expected to have been present in its ancestor (70%) than the remaining two (46% and 36%). Both a generally rapid evolutionary rate, and specific copy number amplifications of particular gene families, may contribute to the remarkable propensity of Brassica species for the development of new morphological variants. The B. rapa genome provides a new resource for comparative and evolutionary analysis of the Brassicaceae genomes and also a platform for genetic improvement of Brassica oil and vegetable crops.2
Genomic structural variants (SVs) are abundant in humans, differing from other variation classes in extent, origin, and functional impact. Despite progress in SV characterization, the nucleotide resolution architecture of most SVs remains unknown. We constructed a map of unbalanced SVs (i.e., copy number variants) based on whole genome DNA sequencing data from 185 human genomes, integrating evidence from complementary SV discovery approaches with extensive experimental validations. Our map encompassed 22,025 deletions and 6,000 additional SVs, including insertions and tandem duplications. Most SVs (53%) were mapped to nucleotide resolution, which facilitated analyzing their origin and functional impact. We examined numerous whole and partial gene deletions with a genotyping approach and observed a depletion of gene disruptions amongst high frequency deletions. Furthermore, we observed differences in the size spectra of SVs originating from distinct formation mechanisms, and constructed a map constructed a map of SV hotspots formed by common mechanisms. Our analytical framework and SV map serves as a resource for sequencing-based association studies.
We show that metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) can incorporate a large number of different functionalities on linking groups in a way that mixes the linker, rather than forming separate domains. We made complex MOFs from 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate (denoted by "A" in this work) and its derivatives -NH2, -Br, -(Cl)2, -NO2, -(CH3)2, -C4H4, -(OC3H5)2, and -(OC7H7)2 (denoted by "B" to "I," respectively) to synthesize 18 multivariate (MTV) MOF-5 type structures that contain up to eight distinct functionalities in one phase. The backbone (zinc oxide and phenylene units) of these structures is ordered, but the distribution of functional groups is disordered. The complex arrangements of several functional groups within the pores can lead to properties that are not simply linear sums of those of the pure components. For example, a member of this series, MTV-MOF-5-EHI, exhibits up to 400% better selectivity for carbon dioxide over carbon monoxide compared with its best same-link counterparts.
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