Viral hepatitis is one of the major public health concerns around the world but until recently it has drawn little attention or funding from global health policymakers. Every year 1.4 million people die from viral hepatitis-related cirrhosis and liver cancer. However, the majority of the infected population are unaware of their condition. This population have significant obstacles to overcome such as lack of awareness, vulnerability, increased migration, disease stigma, discrimination, as well as poor health resources, conflict in policy development and program implementation. Despite implementing infection control measures over the last few decades eradication or significant disease reduction remains elusive. This study aims to present the current global prevalence status and examines potential elimination strategies. The information for this research were obtained through a systematic review, published scientific literatures, the official websites of various government organisations, international public health organisations and internationally recognised regulatory bodies over a period of 40 years between 1978 and 2018.
Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia (HAAA) is an uncommon but distinct variant of aplastic anemia in which pancytopenia appears two to three months after an acute attack of hepatitis. HAAA occurs most frequently in young male children and is lethal if leave untreated. The etiology of this syndrome is proposed to be attributed to various hepatitis and non hepatitis viruses. Several hepatitis viruses such as HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV, HEV and HGV have been associated with this set of symptoms. Viruses other than the hepatitis viruses such as parvovirus B19, Cytomegalovirus, Epstein bar virus, Transfusion Transmitted virus (TTV) and non-A-E hepatitis virus (unknown viruses) has also been documented to develop the syndrome. Considerable evidences including the clinical features, severe imbalance of the T cell immune system and effective response to immunosuppressive therapy strongly present HAAA as an immune mediated mechanism. However, no association of HAAA has been found with blood transfusions, drugs and toxins. Besides hepatitis and non hepatitis viruses and immunopathogenesis phenomenon as causative agents of the disorder, telomerase mutation, a genetic factor has also been predisposed for the development of aplastic anemia. Diagnosis includes clinical manifestations, blood profiling, viral serological markers testing, immune functioning and bone marrow hypocellularity examination. Patients presenting the features of HAAA have been mostly treated with bone marrow or hematopoietic cell transplantation from HLA matched donor, and if not available then by immunosuppressive therapy. New therapeutic approaches involve the administration of steroids especially the glucocorticoids to augment the immunosuppressive therapy response. Pancytopenia following an episode of acute hepatitis response better to hematopoietic cell transplantation than immunosuppressive therapy.
BackgroundSince the first reported outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Pakistan, several mini outbreaks have erupted in the region. Dengue virus serotype 3 (DEN-3) was first documented in 2005 outbreak in Karachi. Reports show that serotype 3 is prevalent in Lahore since 2008. Serotype 2 (DEN-2) is the major circulating serotype in Pakistan as it is documented since 1994. We have conducted a detailed study of three outbreaks of dengue virus infection that occurred in years 2007, 2008 and 2009 in Lahore by using molecular techniques such as PCR and nucleotide sequencing of the C-prM gene junction of Dengue virus.ResultsThrough the analysis of 114 serum samples collected over the period of three years (2007-2009), total 20 patients were found to be infected with dengue virus. In year 2007, four were positive for serotype 2 and one sample was positive for serotype DEN-3. In 2008, five samples had concurrent infection with serotypes DEN-2 and DEN-3 while three samples were infected only with serotype DEN-2. In year 2009, one sample had concurrent infection with serotypes DEN-2 and DEN-3 while six were positive for serotype DEN-2 only.ConclusionsOur study showed that serotype DEN-2 was dominant in positive samples of dengue virus infection collected during the period of three years (2007-2009). The other serotype present was serotype DEN-3. Genotypes of serotype DEN-2 and serotype DEN-3 were subtype IV and subtype III, respectively.
Author contributions: Mathew S and Faheem M contributed equally to this manuscript; Qadri I conceived and designed the topic; Mathew S, Faheem M, Ibrahim SM, Iqbal W and Rauff B contributed to materials and wrote the paper; Faheem M, Ibrahim SM, Iqbal W, Rauff B, Fatima K and Qadri I contributed to proof reading of the manuscript.Supported by KACST large R and D grant to Ishtiaq Qadri (#162-34).Conflict-of-interest statement: Authors declare no conflict of interests for this article. AbstractChronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection exhibits a wide range of extrahepatic complications, affecting various organs in the human body. Numerous HCV patients suffer neurological manifestations, ranging from cognitive impairment to peripheral neuropathy. Overexpression of the host immune response leads to the production of immune complexes, cryoglobulins, as well as autoantibodies, which is a major pathogenic mechanism responsible for nervous system dysfunction. Alternatively circulating inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and HCV replication in neurons is another factor that severely affects the nervous system. Furthermore, HCV infection causes both sensory and motor peripheral neuropathy in the mixed cryoglobulinemia as well as known as an important risk aspect for stroke. These extrahepatic manifestations are the reason behind underlying hepatic encephalopathy and chronic liver disease. The brain is an apt location for HCV replication, where the HCV virus may directly wield neurotoxicity. Other mechanisms that takes place by chronic HCV infection due the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders includes derangement of metabolic pathways of infected cells, autoimmune disorders, systemic or cerebral inflammation and alterations in neurotransmitter circuits. HCV and its pathogenic role is suggested by enhancement of psychiatric and neurological symptoms in patients attaining a sustained virologic response followed by treatment with interferon; however, further studies are required to fully assess the impact of HCV infection and its specific antiviral targets associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. REVIEWSubmit a
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a member of Flaviviridae family and one of the major causes of liver disease. There are about 175 million HCV infected patients worldwide that constitute 3% of world's population. The main route of HCV transmission is parental however 90% intravenous drug users are at highest risk. Standard interferon and ribavirin remained a gold standard of chronic HCV treatment having 38-43% sustained virological response rates. Currently the standard therapy for HCV is pegylated interferon (PEG-INF) with ribavirin. This therapy achieves 50% sustained virological response (SVR) for genotype 1 and 80% for genotype 2 & 3. As pegylated interferon is expensive, standard interferon is still the main therapy for HCV treatment in under developed countries. On the other hand, studies showed that pegylated IFN and RBV therapy has severe side effects like hematological complications. Herbal medicines (laccase, proanthocyandin, Rhodiola kirilowii) are also being in use as a natural and alternative way for treatment of HCV but there is not a single significant report documented yet. Best SVR indicators are genotype 3 and 2, < 0.2 million IU/mL pretreatment viral load, rapid virological response (RVR) rate and age <40 years. New therapeutic approaches are under study like interferon related systems, modified forms of ribavirin, internal ribosome entry site (HCV IRES) inhibitors, NS3 and NS5a inhibitors, novel immunomodulators and specifically targeted anti-viral therapy for hepatitis C compounds. More remedial therapies include caspase inhibitors, anti-fibrotic agents, antibody treatment and vaccines.
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) comprises of extra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cancers as a result of inflammation of epithelium cell lining of the bile duct. The incidence rate is increasing dramatically worldwide with highest rates in Eastern and South Asian regions. Major risk factors involve chronic damage and inflammation of bile duct epithelium from primary sclerosing cholangitis, chronic hepatitis virus infection, gallstones and liver fluke infection. Various genetic variants have also been identified and as CCA develops on the background of biliary inflammation, diverse range of molecular mechanisms are involved in its progression. Among these, the Notch signalling pathway acts as a major driver of cholangiocarcinogenesis and its components (receptors, ligands and downstream signalling molecules) represent a promising therapeutic targets. Gamma-Secretase Inhibitors have been recognized in inhibiting the Notch pathway efficiently. A comprehensive knowledge of the molecular pathways activated by the Notch signalling cascade as well as its functional crosstalk with other signalling pathways provide better approach in developing innovative therapies against CCA.
Epidemiological studies have suggested a linkage between insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes and chronic HCV infection however molecular mechanism of this association is not well known. This review focuses on the recent advances in research about these possible pathways in order to bring out some common opinions on how to manage such patients with insulin resistance.Context: HCV infection is strongly associated with development of insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes, however molecular mechanism of these associations is not known. The aim of this review was to conduct a comprehensive literature search to understand the nature of the association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and insulin resistance (IR). We also explored the role of HCV core protein and NS5a in modulating the course of the insulin-signaling pathway. Evidence Acquisitions: We searched Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) Google Scholar, Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO), Web of Science (TS and PakMediNet). Results: Emerging evidence suggests an association between HCV infection and carotid/ coronary vascular disease. IR appears to be a dominant underlying cause of accelerated atherosclerosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). HCV can induce IR directly through the stimulation of SOCS3 and PPA2, and both of these molecules have been shown to inhibit interferon-α signaling. Improvement of insulin sensitivity may increase the response rate to antiviral treatment and prevent IR complications, including vascular diseases. The results of several clinical trials that have used insulin sensitizers (metformin and PPAR-γ agonists) have been inconclusive. Conclusions: Beside the association between HCV and IR, the published data also have showed the possible association of HCV core and NS5A protein with IR.
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