Congenital variants and anomalies of the aortic arch are important to recognize as they may be associated with vascular rings, congenital heart disease, and chromosomal abnormalities, and can have important implications for prognosis and management. The purpose of this article is to review cross-sectional imaging techniques used in the evaluation of the aortic arch, describe the embryology and anatomy of the aortic arch system, discuss aortic arch variants and anomalies, and review other malformations of the aortic arch, including interrupted aortic arch, hypoplastic aortic arch, and aortic coarctation. Aortic arch variants and anomalies will be reviewed in the context of a theoretical double aortic arch system. Arch anomalies can be associated with symptoms, such as dysphagia lusoria in the setting of left aortic arch with aberrant right subclavian artery. Arch variants that form a vascular ring, such as double aortic arch, can result in respiratory distress due to tracheal compression. Certain arch anomalies are strongly associated with congenital heart disease, including right aortic arch with mirror image branching. Other malformations of the aortic arch have important associations, such as type B interrupted aortic arch, which is associated with a locus 22q11.2 microdeletion. Noninvasive imaging at CT angiography and MR angiography allows for comprehensive evaluation of the aortic arch and branch vessels in relation to surrounding structures. Familiarity with the spectrum and imaging appearances of aortic arch variants, anomalies, and malformations is essential for accurate diagnosis and classification and to guide management. Online supplemental material is available for this article. RSNA, 2016.
This article addresses the scope, etiology, important associations and imaging features of congenital bronchopulmonary foregut malformations. Etiologic concepts, including airway obstruction and vascular anomalies, are highlighted. Technical imaging advances, especially CT and MR, have greatly enhanced our diagnostic abilities in evaluating these lesions; however, thorough and careful assessment of all aspects of the malformation is still necessary. Several specific lesions are discussed in more detail, particularly regarding controversial issues in classification, understanding, imaging and management.
PTLD in young thoracic transplant recipients involves the lungs and extrathoracic organs, tends to have an early onset, and manifests predominantly in the thorax in lung transplant and heart-lung transplant recipients, as opposed to heart transplant recipients.
Controlled-ventilation infant CT scanning under general anesthesia, utilizing intubation and recruitment maneuvers followed by chest CT scans, appears to be a safe and effective method to obtain reliable and reproducible high-quality, motion-free chest CT images in children.
CEPS is associated with heterotaxy with polysplenia and can be symptomatic because of pulmonary arteriovenous (AV) shunting. Portal and hepatic vein patency are critical for determining feasibility of CEPS closure.
Significant radiation dose reduction can be achieved for routine pediatric chest CT by weight-based decreases in kVp in addition to low mAs. Increased noise was considered an acceptable trade-off for decreased dose, and image quality was acceptable.
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