Following a simulation approach of recent publications we explore the viability of the neutrino-heating explosion mechanism in dependence on the spatial dimension. Our results disagree with previous findings. While we also observe that two-dimensional (2D) models explode for lower driving neutrino luminosity than spherically symmetric (1D) models, we do not find that explosions in 3D occur easier and earlier than in 2D. Moreover, we find that the average entropy of matter in the gain layer hardly depends on the dimension and thus is no good diagnostic quantity for the readiness to explode. Instead, mass, integrated entropy, total neutrino-heating rate, and nonradial kinetic energy in the gain layer are higher when models are closer to explosion. Coherent, largescale mass motions as typically associated with the standing accretion-shock instability (SASI) are observed to be supportive for explosions because they drive strong shock expansion and thus enlarge the gain layer. While 2D models with better angular resolution explode clearly more easily, the opposite trend is seen in 3D. We interpret this as a consequence of the turbulent energy cascade, which transports energy from small to large spatial scales in 2D, thus fostering SASI activity. In contrast, the energy flow in 3D is in the opposite direction, feeding fragmentation and vortex motions on smaller scales and thus making the 3D evolution with finer grid resolution more similar to 1D. More favorable conditions for explosions in 3D may therefore be tightly linked to efficient growth of low-order SASI modes including nonaxisymmetric ones.
The relevance of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) compared to neutrino-driven convection in three-dimensional (3D) supernova-core environments is still highly controversial. Studying a 27 M ⊙ progenitor, we demonstrate, for the first time, that violent SASI activity can develop in 3D simulations with detailed neutrino transport despite the presence of convection. This result was obtained with the Prometheus-Vertex code with the same sophisticated neutrino treatment so far used only in 1D and 2D models. While buoyant plumes initially determine the nonradial mass motions in the postshock layer, bipolar shock sloshing with growing amplitude sets in during a phase of shock retraction and turns into a violent spiral mode whose growth is only quenched when the infall of the Si/SiO interface leads to strong shock expansion in response to a dramatic decrease of the mass accretion rate. In the phase of large-amplitude SASI sloshing and spiral motions, the postshock layer exhibits nonradial deformation dominated by the lowest-order spherical harmonics (ℓ = 1, m = 0, ±1) in distinct contrast to the higher multipole structures associated with neutrino-driven convection. We find that the SASI amplitudes, shock asymmetry, and nonradial kinetic energy in 3D can exceed those of the corresponding 2D case during extended periods of the evolution. We also perform parametrized 3D simulations of a 25 M ⊙ progenitor, using a simplified, gray neutrino transport scheme, an axis-free Yin-Yang grid, and different amplitudes of random seed perturbations. They confirm the importance of the SASI for another progenitor, its independence of the choice of spherical grid, and its preferred growth for fast accretion flows connected to small shock radii and compact proto-neutron stars as previously found in 2D setups.
Double neutron stars (DNSs) have been observed as Galactic radio pulsars, and the recent discovery of gravitational waves from the DNS merger GW170817 adds to the known DNS population. We perform rapid population synthesis of massive binary stars and discuss model predictions, including DNS formation rates, mass distributions, and delay time distributions. We vary assumptions and parameters of physical processes such as mass transfer stability criteria, supernova natal kick distributions, remnant mass prescriptions and common-envelope energetics. We compute the likelihood of observing the orbital period-eccentricity distribution of the Galactic DNS population under each of our population synthesis models, allowing us to quantitatively compare the models. We find that mass transfer from a stripped post-helium-burning secondary (case BB) onto a neutron star is most likely dynamically stable. We also find that a natal kick distribution composed of both low (Maxwellian σ = 30 km s −1 ) and high (σ = 265 km s −1 ) components is preferred over a single high-kick component. We conclude that the observed DNS mass distribution can place strong constraints on model assumptions.
Since core-collapse supernova simulations still struggle to produce robust neutrino-driven explosions in 3D, it has been proposed that asphericities caused by convection in the progenitor might facilitate shock revival by boosting the activity of non-radial hydrodynamic instabilities in the post-shock region. We investigate this scenario in depth using 42 relativistic 2D simulations with multi-group neutrino transport to examine the effects of velocity and density perturbations in the progenitor for different perturbation geometries that obey fundamental physical constraints (like the anelastic condition). As a framework for analysing our results, we introduce semi-empirical scaling laws relating neutrino heating, average turbulent velocities in the gain region, and the shock deformation in the saturation limit of non-radial instabilities. The squared turbulent Mach number, Ma 2 , reflects the violence of aspherical motions in the gain layer, and explosive runaway occurs for Ma 2 0.3, corresponding to a reduction of the critical neutrino luminosity by ∼25% compared to 1D. In the light of this theory, progenitor asphericities aid shock revival mainly by creating anisotropic mass flux onto the shock: Differential infall efficiently converts velocity perturbations in the progenitor into density perturbations δρ/ρ at the shock of the order of the initial convective Mach number Ma prog . The anisotropic mass flux and ram pressure deform the shock and thereby amplify post-shock turbulence. Large-scale (ℓ = 2, ℓ = 1) modes prove most conducive to shock revival, whereas small-scale perturbations require unrealistically high convective Mach numbers. Initial density perturbations in the progenitor are only of order Ma 2 prog and therefore play a subdominant role.
We present a detailed theoretical analysis of the gravitational-wave (GW) signal of the post-bounce evolution of core-collapse supernovae (SNe), employing for the first time relativistic, two-dimensional (2D) explosion models with multi-group, three-flavor neutrino transport based on the ray-by-ray-plus approximation. The waveforms reflect the accelerated mass motions associated with the characteristic evolutionary stages that were also identified in previous works: A quasi-periodic modulation by prompt postshock convection is followed by a phase of relative quiescence before growing amplitudes signal violent hydrodynamical activity due to convection and the standing accretion shock instability during the accretion period of the stalled shock. Finally, a high-frequency, low-amplitude variation from proto-neutron star (PNS) convection below the neutrinosphere appears superimposed on the low-frequency trend associated with the aspherical expansion of the SN shock after the onset of the explosion. Relativistic effects in combination with detailed neutrino transport are shown to be essential for quantitative predictions of the GW frequency evolution and energy spectrum, because they determine the structure of the PNS surface layer and its characteristic g-mode frequency. Burst-like high-frequency activity phases, correlated with sudden luminosity increase and spectral hardening of electron (anti-)neutrino emission for some 10 ms, are discovered as new features after the onset of the explosion. They correspond to intermittent episodes of anisotropic accretion by the PNS in the case of fallback SNe. We find stronger signals for more massive progenitors with large accretion rates. The typical frequencies are higher for massive PNSs, though the time-integrated spectrum also strongly depends on the model dynamics.
We present the first two-dimensional general relativistic (GR) simulations of stellar core collapse and explosion with the CoCoNuT hydrodynamics code in combination with the Vertex solver for energy-dependent, three-flavor neutrino transport, using the extended conformal flatness condition for approximating the spacetime metric and a ray-by-ray-plus ansatz to tackle the multi-dimensionality of the transport. For both of the investigated 11.2 and 15 M ⊙ progenitors we obtain successful, though seemingly marginal, neutrino-driven supernova explosions. This outcome and the time evolution of the models basically agree with results previously obtained with the Prometheus hydro solver including an approximative treatment of relativistic effects by a modified Newtonian potential. However, GR models exhibit subtle differences in the neutrinospheric conditions compared to Newtonian and pseudo-Newtonian simulations. These differences lead to significantly higher luminosities and mean energies of the radiated electron neutrinos and antineutrinos and therefore to larger energy-deposition rates and heating efficiencies in the gain layer with favorable consequences for strong nonradial mass motions and ultimately for an explosion. Moreover, energy transfer to the stellar medium around the neutrinospheres through nucleon recoil in scattering reactions of heavy-lepton neutrinos also enhances the mentioned effects. Together with previous pseudo-Newtonian models the presented relativistic calculations suggest that the treatment of gravity and energy-exchanging neutrino interactions can make differences of even 50-100% in some quantities and is likely to contribute to a finally successful explosion mechanism on no minor level than hydrodynamical differences between different dimensions.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.