With 12-month prevalence rates of more than 70%, back pain is currently one of the major health problems for German adults and entails major economic consequences. The aim of this study was to estimate back pain-related costs from a societal perspective and to determine the impact of sociodemographic variables on costs. Based on back pain-related survey data of a large German adult sample (9267 respondents, response rate 60%), costs were assessed using a prevalence-based bottom-up approach. Direct costs caused by utilisation of healthcare services, as well as indirect costs due to back pain-related production losses were considered. All prices are expressed in 2005 Euros. Average total back pain costs per patient were estimated to be 1,322 euro (95% CI [1173-1487]) per year. These costs are split between direct (46%) and indirect (54%) costs. Bivariate analysis showed considerable differences in total costs between the Von Korff back pain grades (GCPS Group I: Mean 414.4, 95% CI [333.2-506.3]; II: 783.6 [574.5-1044.4]; III: 3017.2 [2392.9-3708.6]; IV: 7115.7 [5418.5-9006.5]). Male gender, increasing age, single status, low education, unemployment, and increasing back pain grade had a significant positive impact on the cost magnitude in multivariate analysis. Despite several limitations, this study provides important information concerning the relevance of back pain as a health problem and its socioeconomic consequences. The information may be of value for decision-making and allocation of research fund resources.
MI is combined with significant reduction in HRQL compared with the general population. The main impairments occur in the dimension pain/discomfort, usual activities, and particularly anxiety/depression. The relative impairment decreases with higher ages.
Objective: To analyse the psychometric properties of the EuroQol questionnaire (EQ-5D) applied to patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Setting: Rehabilitation hospital. Patients and design: 106 consecutive patients with ACS (51% myocardial infarction, 42% coronary artery bypass grafting, 7% angina) completed the EQ-5D, the 36 item short form health survey (SF-36), and the MacNew questionnaire at admission, at discharge, and three months after inpatient cardiac rehabilitation. Acceptance, validity, reliability, and responsiveness of the EQ-5D were tested. Results: The EQ-5D was highly accepted. The EQ-5D index showed substantial ceiling effects after rehabilitation. As expected the EQ-5D visual analogue scale (VAS) score (70.3 v 57.1) and EQ-5D index (77.8 v 64.5) were significantly better for patients with myocardial infarction than for patients who underwent surgery (both p ( 0.001). Significant correlations were found between the EQ-5D VAS score, EQ-5D index, and domains of the SF-36 (r = 0.21 to r = 0.74). The correlation with the MacNew subscores and with the global score ranged between 0.55 and 0.78. With repeated measurement the EQ-5D showed reasonable reliability in stable patients with intraclass correlation ranging between 0.91 and 0.54. EQ-5D was responsive in patients who indicated improvement in health states between admission and discharge (effect size 0.74-0.82).
Conclusion:The psychometric properties of the EQ-5D were satisfying. It is a reasonably valid, reliable, and responsive instrument for patients with ACS. It may be useful in clinical research and epidemiological studies to generate preference based valuations of health related quality life.A cute coronary syndromes (ACS) are highly prevalent in western countries. The diagnosis of ACS is associated with a high mortality and leads to increased morbidity, including chronic physical impairments and functional limitations, all of which have an impact on health related quality of life (HRQoL). HRQoL is a subjective measure of well being comprising social, mental, and physical dimensions.1
The ratio of mean cost over mean effect difference (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio) indicates dominance of outpatient rehabilitation, but at a considerable statistical uncertainty. However, outpatient rehabilitation cannot be rejected from an economic perspective.
The EQ-5D provides a simple instrument for assessing HRQL. It can well detect health inequalities, and the results can be replicated in different studies. More research is needed on the techniques to valuate HRQL in population studies. The EQ-5D provides a tool to assess the HRQL of the German population. New reference figures have been presented for this, and it has been shown how health economic tools and research on health inequalities can be integrated.
BackgroundChronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension (CTEPH) results from incomplete resolution of a pulmonary embolus, leading to pulmonary hypertension and progressive right heart failure and death. We aimed to describe the demographics, treatment patterns, health resource utilization and related costs of patients with CTEPH.MethodsIn specialized PH centres across six European countries, medical charts of CTEPH patients on PH medication were retrospectively extracted (chart review between 2006 and 2009). Resource utilization was valued using country-specific unit costs. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed.ResultsTwenty-one hospitals documented 119 consecutive CTEPH patients over an average of 25.4 months. Patients were inoperable (83.9%) or persistent after surgery (16.0%) with mean age 67.5 ± 12.3 years, 61% were female. The average 6-minute walking distance was 298 ± 120 meters, and NYHA class II/III/IV was 27/59/14%. At baseline, 59.7% patients received endothelin receptor antagonist, 34.4% phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, and 5.8% prostacyclin. Adding a second PH medication was the most common regimen change. CTEPH patients experienced 1.8 ± 2.2 hospitalizations per year accounting for 14.8 ± 26.1 days in hospital. Patients paid on average 2.8 office visits per year to their general practitioner and 1.3 visits to a specialist. Unadjusted annual mortality rate was 6.0%. Annual cost of PH specific medication was the predominant economic factor averaging € 36,768 per year. Costs for hospitalizations (€ 4,496) and concomitant medications (€ 2,510) were substantially lower. Other health care resource items only accounted for marginal additional costs.ConclusionCTEPH patients are characterised by substantial morbidity and mortality. Health care utilisation, predominantly due to off-label use of PH drugs, is significant.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.