We characterized 144 Escherichia coli isolates from severe cellulitis lesions in broiler chickens from South Brazil. Analysis of susceptibility to 15 antimicrobials revealed frequencies of resistance of less than 30% for most antimicrobials except tetracycline (70%) and sulphonamides (60%). The genotyping of 34 virulence-associated genes revealed that all the isolates harbored virulence factors related to adhesion, iron acquisition and serum resistance, which are characteristic of the avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) pathotype. ColV plasmid-associated genes (cvi/cva, iroN, iss, iucD, sitD, traT, tsh) were especially frequent among the isolates (from 66.6% to 89.6%). According to the Clermont method of ECOR phylogenetic typing, isolates belonged to group D (47.2%), to group A (27.8%), to group B2 (17.4%) and to group B1 (7.6%); the group B2 isolates contained the highest number of virulence-associated genes. Clonal relationship analysis using the ARDRA method revealed a similarity level of 57% or higher among isolates, but no endemic clone. The virulence of the isolates was confirmed in vivo in one-day-old chicks. Most isolates (72.9%) killed all infected chicks within 7 days, and 65 isolates (38.1%) killed most of them within 24 hours. In order to analyze differences in virulence among the APEC isolates, we created a pathogenicity score by combining the times of death with the clinical symptoms noted. By looking for significant associations between the presence of virulence-associated genes and the pathogenicity score, we found that the presence of genes for invasins ibeA and gimB and for group II capsule KpsMTII increased virulence, while the presence of pic decreased virulence. The fact that ibeA, gimB and KpsMTII are characteristic of neonatal meningitis E. coli (NMEC) suggests that genes of NMEC in APEC increase virulence of strains.
Pathogenic Escherichia coli found in humans and poultry carcasses harbor similar virulence and resistance genes. The present study aimed to analyze the distribution of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) virulence factors (VF), blaCTX−M groups, fosA3, and mcr-1 genes in E. coli isolated from commercialized chicken carcasses in southern Brazil and to evaluate their pathogenic risk. A total of 409 E. coli strains were isolated and characterized for genes encoding virulence factors described in ExPEC. Results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing confirmed that the strains were resistant to β-lactams, fosfomycin, colistin, and others resistance groups. The highest prevalence of VFs was observed in isolates belonging to the CTX-M groups, especially the CTX-M-2 group, when compared to those in other susceptible strains or strains with different mechanisms of resistance. Furthermore, ESBL strains were found to be 1.40 times more likely to contain three to five ExPEC virulence genes than non-ESBL strains. Our findings revealed the successful conjugation between ESBL-producing E. coli isolated from chicken carcass and the E. coli recipient strain J53, which suggested that genetic determinants encoding CTX-M enzymes may have originated from animals and could be transmitted to humans via food chain. In summary, chicken meat is a potential reservoir of MDR E. coli strains harboring resistance and virulence genes that could pose serious risks to human public health.
Microbiological contamination in commercial poultry production has caused concerns for human health because of both the presence of pathogenic microorganisms and the increase in antimicrobial resistance in bacterial strains that can cause treatment failure of human infections. The aim of our study was to analyze the profile of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors of E. coli isolates from chicken carcasses obtained from different farming systems (conventional and free-range poultry). A total of 156 E. coli strains were isolated and characterized for genes encoding virulence factors described in extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed for 15 antimicrobials, and strains were confirmed as extended spectrum of β-lactamases- (ESBLs-) producing E. coli by phenotypic and genotypic tests. The results indicated that strains from free-range poultry have fewer virulence factors than strains from conventional poultry. Strains from conventionally raised chickens had a higher frequency of antimicrobial resistance for all antibiotics tested and also exhibited genes encoding ESBL and AmpC, unlike free-range poultry isolates, which did not. Group 2 CTX-M and CIT were the most prevalent ESBL and AmpC genes, respectively. The farming systems of poultries can be related with the frequency of virulence factors and resistance to antimicrobials in bacteria.
The frequent use of antimicrobials in commercial poultry production has raised concerns regarding the potential impact of antimicrobials on human health due to selection for resistant bacteria. Several studies have reported similarities between extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains isolated from birds and humans, indicating that these contaminant bacteria in poultry may be linked to human disease. The aim of our study was to analyze the frequency of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors among E. coli strains isolated from commercial chicken carcasses in Paraná, Brazil, in 2007 and 2013. A total of 84 E. coli strains were isolated from chicken carcasses in 2007, and 121 E. coli strains were isolated in 2013. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect virulence genes (hlyF, iss, ompT, iron, and iutA) and to determine phylogenetic classification. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using 15 antimicrobials. The strains were also confirmed as extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli with phenotypic and genotypic tests. The results indicated that our strains harbored virulence genes characteristic of ExPEC, with the iutA gene being the most prevalent. The phylogenetic groups D and B1 were the most prevalent among the strains isolated in 2007 and 2013, respectively. There was an increase in the frequency of resistance to a majority of antimicrobials tested. An important finding in this study was the large number of ESBL-producing E. coli strains isolated from chicken carcasses in 2013, primarily for the group 2 cefotaximase (CTX-M) enzyme. ESBL production confers broad-spectrum resistance and is a health risk because ESBL genes are transferable from food-producing animals to humans via poultry meat. These findings suggest that our strains harbored virulence and resistance genes, which are often associated with plasmids that can facilitate their transmission between bacteria derived from different hosts, suggesting zoonotic risks.
This study characterized 52 Escherichia coli isolates from distinct diseased organs of 29 broiler chickens with clinical symptoms of colibacillosis in the Southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. Thirty-eight isolates were highly virulent and 14 were virtually avirulent in 1-day-old chicks, yet all isolates harbored virulence factors characteristic of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC), including those related to adhesion, iron acquisition, and serum resistance. E. coli reference collection phylogenetic typing showed that isolates belonged mostly to group D (39%), followed by group A (29%), group B1 (17%), and group B2 (15%). Phylogenetic analyses using the Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis and pulse-field gel electrophoresis methods were used to discriminate among isolates displaying the same serotype, revealing that five birds were infected with two distinct APEC strains. Among the 52 avian isolates, 2 were members of the pandemic E. coli O25:H4-B2-ST131 clone.
In this study, we compared Escherichia coli isolates from chickens with avian cellulitis with those from feces of healthy chickens. Cellulitis-derived strains presented phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of greater virulence than did the fecal isolates. Phylogenetic analysis by repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR showed that, in agreement with their virulence characteristics, the cellulitis isolates form two clonal groups distinct from the fecal isolates.Escherichia coli causes a variety of diseases in poultry, including respiratory tract infection, omphalitis, swollen-head syndrome, enteritis, septicemia, and cellulitis (3, 7), and these diseases are responsible for major economic losses in the chicken industry. Cellulitis lesions cause carcass downgrading and condemnation losses estimated at $40 million annually (7) in the United States. In Brazil, cellulitis is responsible for 45.2% of the broiler carcasses condemned for skin lesions (2), and the economic losses are estimated at $10 million annually.Some clones of E. coli may be more effective in causing cellulitis, since experimental inoculation of isolates from cellulitis lesions reproduced this disease with a significantly greater frequency (100%) than did inoculation of isolates from airsacculitis lesions (42%) or inoculation of fecal isolates (8%) (9). However, E. coli strains isolated from cellulitis lesions expressed many virulence-associated factors similar to those presented by strains isolated from other colibacillosis lesions and from feces (6, 8), which shows that the expression of these virulence factors by themselves cannot explain the differences in pathogenicity presented by these isolates.Since avian colibacillosis in its different forms occurs worldwide, we can gain a better understanding of its pathogenesis by a phylogenetic analysis of the clonal relations among E. coli isolates in several regions and in different countries. In this study, we used phenotypic and genotypic methods to examine the presence of virulence factors in E. coli isolates obtained in Southern Brazil from broiler chickens and determined by repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP)-PCR the genetic relationship among these isolates and avian fecal isolates.Fifty-two broiler chickens presenting cellulitis were collected from 52 different flocks in Southern Brazil, and from each animal one E. coli strain was isolated from pure culture and maintained by standard procedures. Twelve E. coli strains were obtained from the feces of healthy chickens. Isolates were grown on brain heart infusion agar (Difco) for 18 h at 37°C for phenotypic or genotypic analysis.The following phenotypic properties of the E. coli isolates were evaluated by standard methods (1, 9, 11): antibiotic resistance, pathogenicity to 1-day-old chickens, motility, ability to experimentally reproduce cellulitis (applied to 20 isolates), production of hemolysins, presence of K1 capsule, hemagglutination, production of aerobactin, resistance to chicken serum, and production of cytotoxins to Vero cells. All ...
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes extraintestinal infections in birds, leading to an increase in the cost of poultry production. The ColV plasmid-linked genes iroN, ompT, hlyF, iss, and iutA have previously been suggested to be predictors of the virulence of APEC. In this research, we analyzed the frequencies of these genes in a Brazilian collection of E. coli isolated from birds with colibacillosis (APEC) and from apparently healthy birds (avian fecal [A(fecal)]), as well as from the litter of poultry houses of apparently healthy flocks (avian litter [A(litter)]). All the isolates that harbored ompT also harbored hlyF, so they were considered as one trait for statistical analysis. The relationship between in vivo virulence in 1-day-old chicks, expressed as a pathogenicity score, and the number of genes in each isolate showed that isolates with less than two of the four genes were rarely pathogenic, while most pathogenic isolates contained two or more genes. Nevertheless, about half of the nonpathogenic isolates also harbored two or more genes, in agreement with previous observations that commensal E. coli isolates from the birds' microbiota can serve as a reservoir of virulence genes. Thus, the pentaplex polymerase chain reaction can be used to indicate that a strain carrying none or only one gene would be nonpathogenic, but it cannot be used to indicate that a strain with two to four genes would be an APEC. Isolates allocated to phylogenetic group B2, which is frequently associated with extraintestinal infections, had the highest pathogenicity scores, while isolates allocated to group B1 had the lowest.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers