Asphodelus microcarpus belongs to the family Liliaceae that include several medicinal plants. In the traditional medicine plants of the genus Asphodelus are used to treat skin disorders such as ectodermal parasites, psoriasis, microbial infection and for lightening freckles. In order to find novel skin depigmenting agents, the present work was carry out to evaluate antioxidant activity and tyrosinase inhibitory potential of leaves, flowers and tubers extracts of A. microcarpus. The phytochemical composition of the active extract was also evaluated.MethodsThree different extracts (water, methanol and ethanol) from leaves, flowers and tubers of A. microcarpus were evaluated for their inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity using l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) as substrate. Inhibition of cellular tyrosinase activity and melanin production was also investigated in melanoma B16F10 cells. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoids contents were determined using standard in vitro methods. HPLC-DAD-MS was used to identify phenolic profile of the active extract.ResultsThe results showed that all extracts have a direct inhibitory anti-tyrosinase activity, with ethanolic extract from flowers (FEE) exhibiting the stronger effect. Kinetic analysis revealed that FEE acts as an uncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 0.19 mg/mL. The same effect was observed in murine melanoma B16F10 cells. Cellular tyrosinase activity as well as melanin content were reduced in FEE-treated cells. The results were comparable to that of the standard tyrosinase inhibitor (kojic acid). Furthermore, the same extract showed the highest antioxidant activity and an elevated levels of total phenolics and flavonoid content. Eleven phenolic components were identified as chlorogenic acid, luteolin derivates, naringenin and apigenin.ConclusionsOur findings showed that FEE from A. microcarpus inhibits tyrosinase and exerted antimelanogenesis effect in B16F10 cells. This extract also showed the highest scavenging activity, which could be mainly attributed to its high levels of total polyphenols and flavonoids. These results suggest that A. microcarpus has a great potential as sources of bioactive compounds which could be used as depigmenting agents in skin disorders.
Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS) is a chronic disease characterized by widespread pain, and difficult to diagnose and treat. We analyzed the plasma metabolic profile of patients with FMS by using a metabolomics approach combining Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time Of Flight/Mass Spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF/MS) with multivariate statistical analysis, aiming to discriminate patients and controls. LC-Q-TOF/MS analysis of plasma (FMS patients: n = 22 and controls: n = 21) identified many lipid compounds, mainly lysophosphocholines (lysoPCs), phosphocholines and ceramides. Multivariate statistical analysis was performed to identify the discriminating metabolites. A protein docking and molecular dynamic (MD) study was then performed, using the most discriminating lysoPCs, to validate the binding to Platelet Activating Factor (1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, PAF) Receptor (PAFr). Discriminating metabolites between FMS patients and controls were identified as 1-tetradecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [PC(14∶0/0∶0)] and 1-hexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [PC(16∶0/0∶0)]. MD and docking indicate that the ligands investigated have similar potentialities to activate the PAFr receptor. The application of a metabolomic approach discriminated FMS patients from controls, with an over-representation of PC(14∶0/0∶0) and PC(16∶0/0∶0) compounds in the metabolic profiles. These results and the modeling of metabolite-PAFr interaction, allowed us to hypothesize that lipids oxidative fragmentation might generate lysoPCs in abundance, that in turn will act as PAF-like bioactivators. Overall results suggest disease biomarkers and potential therapeutical targets for FMS.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder representing the leading cause of dementia and is affecting nearly 44 million people worldwide. AD is characterized by a progressive decline in acetylcholine levels in the cholinergic systems, which results in severe memory loss and cognitive impairments. Expression levels and activity of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzyme has been noted to increase significantly in the late stages of AD, thus making it a viable drug target. A series of hydroxylated 2-phenylbenzofurans compounds were designed, synthesized and their inhibitory activities toward acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and BChE enzymes were evaluated. Two compounds (15 and 17) displayed higher inhibitory activity towards BChE with IC50 values of 6.23 μM and 3.57 μM, and a good antioxidant activity with EC50 values 14.9 μM and 16.7 μM, respectively. The same compounds further exhibited selective inhibitory activity against BChE over AChE. Computational studies were used to compare protein-binding pockets and evaluate the interaction fingerprints of the compound. Molecular simulations showed a conserved protein residue interaction network between the compounds, resulting in similar interaction energy values. Thus, combination of biochemical and computational approaches could represent rational guidelines for further structural modification of these hydroxy-benzofuran derivatives as future drugs for treatment of AD.
In the present work we report on the contribution of the coumarin moiety to tyrosinase inhibition. Coumarin-resveratrol hybrids 1-8 have been resynthesized to investigate the structure-activity relationships and the IC50 values of these compounds were measured. The results showed that these compounds exhibited tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Compound 3-(3’,4’,5’-trihydroxyphenyl)-6,8-dihydroxycoumarin (8) is the most potent compound (0.27 mM), more so than umbelliferone (0.42 mM), used as reference compound. The kinetic studies revealed that compound 8 caused non-competitive tyrosinase inhibition.
Antibiotic resistance is one of the main public health concerns of this century. This resistance is also associated with oxidative stress, which could contribute to the selection of resistant bacterial strains. Bearing this in mind, and considering that flavonoid compounds are well known for displaying both activities, we investigated a series of hydroxy-3-arylcoumarins with structural features of flavonoids for their antibacterial activity against different bacterial strains. Active compounds showed selectivity against the studied Gram-positive bacteria compared to Gram-negative bacteria. 5,7-Dihydroxy-3-phenylcoumarin (compound 8) displayed the best antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 11 g/mL, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strain) and Listeria monocytogenes with MICs of 22 and 44 g/mL, respectively. Moreover, molecular docking studies performed on the most active compounds against Staphylococcus aureus tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase and topoisomerase II DNA gyrase revealed the potential binding mode of the ligands to the site of the appropriate targets. Preliminary structure–activity relationship studies showed that the antibacterial activity can be modulated by the presence of the 3-phenyl ring and by the position of the hydroxyl groups at the coumarin scaffold.
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