The development of effective vaccines against neglected diseases, especially those associated with poverty and social deprivation, is urgently needed. Modern vaccine technologies and a better understanding of the immune response have provided scientists with the tools for rational and safer design of subunit vaccines. Often, however, subunit vaccines do not elicit strong immune responses, highlighting the need to incorporate better adjuvants; this step therefore becomes a key factor for vaccine development. In this review we outline some key features of modern vaccinology that are linked with the development of better adjuvants. In line with the increased desire to obtain novel adjuvants for future vaccines, the Finlay Adjuvant Platform offers a novel approach for the development of new and effective adjuvants. The Finlay Adjuvants (AFs), AFPL (proteoliposome), and AFCo (cochleate), were initially designed for parenteral and mucosal applications, and constitute potent adjuvants for the induction of Th1 responses against several antigens. This review summarizes the status of the Finlay technology in producing promising adjuvants for unsolved-vaccine diseases including mucosal approaches and therapeutic vaccines. Ideas related to adjuvant classification, adjuvant selection, and their possible influence on innate recognition via multiple toll-like receptors are also discussed.
AFCo3-AmB exhibited a significant immunomodulator action, reduced toxicity and improved antifungal action against S. schenckii, suggesting a potential use as AmB delivery for systemic sporotrichosis treatment.
Outer-membrane vesicles (OMVs) have inherent adjuvant properties, and many vaccines use OMV as vaccine components. Utilizing the adjuvant properties of OMV could lead to the formulation of vaccines that are less expensive and potentially more immunogenic than covalently conjugated polysaccharide vaccines. We evaluated the adjuvant effect in Balb/c mice of combinations of OMV from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A and W135 as compared to that of the non-covalently conjugated capsular polysaccharide A. Both antigens were adsorbed onto aluminum hydroxide. The mice were given a booster dose of plain polysaccharide A to stimulate an immunologic memory response. Subclasses determination and cytokine assays demonstrated the capacity of OMV to induce a IgG2a/IgG2b isotype profile and IFN-γ production, suggesting the induction of a Th1 pattern immune response. Lymphoproliferative responses to OMVs were high, with affinity maturation of antibodies observed. Bactericidal titers after the booster dose were also observed. Memory B cells and long-term memory T cells were also detected. The results of this study indicate that combined meningococcal serogroup A and W135 OMV can activate cell-mediated immunity and induce a long-term memory response.
Vaccination is considered by the World Health Organization as the most cost-effective strategy for controlling infectious diseases. In spite of great successes with vaccines, many infectious diseases are still leading killers, because of the inadequate coverage of many vaccines. Several factors have been responsible: number of doses, high vaccine reactogenicity, vaccine costs, vaccination policy, among others. Contradictorily, few vaccines are of single dose and even less of mucosal administration. However, more common infections occur via mucosa, where secretory immunoglobulin A plays an essential role. As an alternative, we proposed a novel protocol of vaccination called Single Time Vaccination Strategy (SinTimVaS) by immunizing 2 priming doses at the same time: one by mucosal route and the other by parenteral route. Here, the mucosal and systemic responses induced by Finlay adjuvants (AF Proteoliposome 1 and AF Cochleate 1) implementing SinTimVaS in BALB/c mice were evaluated. One intranasal dose of AF Cochleate 1 and an intramuscular dose of AF Proteoliposome 1 adsorbed onto aluminum hydroxide, with bovine serum albumin or tetanus toxoid as model antigens, administrated at the same time, induced potent specific mucosal and systemic immune responses. Also, we demonstrated that SinTimVaS using other mucosal routes like oral and sublingual, in combination with the subcutaneous route elicits immune responses. SinTimVaS, as a new immunization strategy, could increase vaccination coverage and reduce time-cost vaccines campaigns, adding the benefits of immune response in mucosa.
Increasing emphasis is being placed on the mucosal administration of vaccines in order to stimulate mucosal as well as systemic responses. Findings from our group suggest that proteoliposome-derived cochleate (AFCo1) acts as a potent mucosal adjuvant. As an alternative to chemical conjugation, the current study aimed to determine the benefit of using AFCo1 to improve the mucosal and systemic immune responses to capsular polysaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (PsC), a model of a thymus-independent (TI) antigen. Therefore, intranasal (i.n.) immunization of 3 doses 1 week apart with AFCo1 plus PsC in mice was conducted. Highly specific anti-PsC IgA responses and an anti-PsC IgG response were obtained. The subclass pattern induced against PsC was similar to that induced with the meningococcal vaccine. In summary, AFCo1 as nasal adjuvant was demonstrated to be capable of eliciting mucosal and systemic specific responses against a TI antigen.
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