PurposeMesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been used therapeutically to modulate inflammation and promote repair. Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, have been identified as one of the important mediators. This study investigated the effect of human corneal MSC-derived exosomes on corneal epithelial wound healing.MethodsCorneal MSCs (cMSCs) were isolated from human cadaver corneas. The secretome was collected after 72 hours and exosomes were isolated using differential ultracentrifugation. Morphology and size of exosomes were examined by electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Expression of CD9, CD63, and CD81 by cMSC exosomes was evaluated by western blotting. Cellular uptake of exosomes was studied using calcein-stained exosomes. The effect of exosome on wound healing was measured in vitro using a scratch assay and in vivo after 2-mm epithelial debridement wounds in mice.ResultscMSC exosomes were morphologically round and main population ranged between 40 and 100 nm in diameter. They expressed CD9, CD63, and CD81, and did not express GM130, Calnexin, and Cytochrome-C. Stained cMSC exosomes were successfully taken up by human cMSCs, human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs), and human macrophages in vitro and by corneal epithelium in vivo. In scratch assay, after 16 hours, cMSC exosome treated HCECs had 30.1% ± 14% remaining wound area compared to 72.9% ± 8% in control (P < 0.005). In vivo, after 72 hours, cMSC exosome-treated corneas had 77.5% ± 3% corneal wound healing compared to 41.6% ± 7% in the control group (P < 0.05).ConclusionsHuman cMSC exosomes can accelerate corneal epithelial wound healing, and thus, may provide a therapeutic approach for ocular surface injuries.
Background: Central obesity has been recognized as a main risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) events. Three popular central obesity indices are waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio; abdominal volume index and conicity index are 2 recent novel obesity indices. The main aim of this study is to determine the performance of these indices to best predict 10-year CV events. Hypothesis: Some obesity indices can be used to predict cardiovascular risk. Methods: In total, 3199 subjects (age range, 40-79 years) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and Framingham risk score tools were used to estimate the 10-year CV events. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine the optimal discriminator(s) among the central obesity measures in the estimation of a 10-year risk of CV events ≥7.5%, ≥10%, and ≥20% separately. Results: Among the 5 central obesity indices, conicity index showed the most discriminatory power in estimation of a 10-year CV risk. In men, based on the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association tool, the areas under the curve (AUCs) were from 0.671 to 0.682 based on the 3 above thresholds, whereas with the Framingham tool, AUCs were from 0.651 to 0.659. In women, all AUCs were >0.7. Our results also showed WHR to be an almost comparable discriminator of CV disease risk in the Iranian study population. Conclusion: Conicity index and WHR had a more discriminatory accuracy for 10-year CV events compared with the other obesity indices.
BackgroundA strong association between obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been reported.ObjectivesThis study was conducted to evaluate if new obesity indices, including a body shape index (ABSI) and body roundness index (BRI), have stronger associations with NAFLD than waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR).MethodsIn this cross-sectional study, we utilized the data of 4,872 participants aged 18 - 74 years from a cohort study conducted among 6,143 subjects in northern Iran. Logistic regression analysis was performed on NAFLD as the outcome and obesity measures (based on Z-score values) as potential predictors. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted, in which NAFLD was considered as a reference variable and obesity measures as classification variables. The discriminatory ability of the obesity measures was reported based on area-under-the-curves, and the related cut-off points of BRI and WHtR were determined using the Youden index (YI).ResultsBased on our results, BRI (OR = 5.484 for men and OR = 3.482 for women) and WHtR (OR = 5.309 for men and OR = 3.854 for women) showed a higher association with NAFLD than ABSI (OR = 1.363 for men and OR = 1.003 for women) and WHR (OR = 3.123 for men and OR = 1.628 for women). The optimal cut-off points for BRI were 4.00 (sensitivity = 82.7%, specificity = 70.8%) for men and 5.00 (sensitivity = 83.3%, specificity = 71.7%) for women. The optimal cut-off points for WHtR were 0.533 (sensitivity = 82.7%, specificity = 70.8%) for men and 0.580 (sensitivity = 83.3%, specificity = 71.7%) for women.ConclusionsWhile BRI and WHtR have equally strong associations with NAFLD, ABSI and WHR have weaker associations with NAFLD than BRI and WHtR.
Visceral adiposity index (VAI) has been suggested as an index of visceral adiposity. This study was conducted to determine the discriminatory ability of VAI in diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MetS). We used the data of 5 312 subjects aged 18-74 years of a cohort study conducted among 6 140 individuals aged 10-90 years in Amol, northern Iran. The city population was divided into 16 strata based on gender and age groups in 10-year intervals. The subjects were randomly selected from each stratum. MetS was defined based on National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATPIII), American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI) update of Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII), International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and joint interim statement (JIS) definitions. The discriminatory ability of VAI and other obesity measures were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. While waist circumference (WC) showed the highest discriminatory ability for MetS in IDF definition in men (AUC=0.899 [CI=0.888-0.910]), VAI had the greatest discriminatory ability according to other definitions in men and women. The related AUCs of VAI were 0.866 (95%CI: 0.850-0.881), 0.829 (95%CI: 0.813-0.846), 0.859 (95%CI: 0.844-0.873) and 0.876 (95%CI: 0.863-0.889) based on NCEP/ATPIII, AHA/NHLBI update of ATPIII, IDF and JIS definition in men, and also 0.888 (95%CI: 0.875-0.902), 0.894 (95%CI: 0.881-0.907), 0.883 (95%CI: 0.869-0.897) and 0.879 (95%CI: 0.864-0.894) in women, respectively. VAI showed an excellent discriminatory ability in diagnosis of MetS. Considering its relatively simple calculation, this index could be suggested as a reliable tool in medical practice.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.