Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a key regulatory enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway which produces nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) to maintain an adequate reducing environment in the cells and is especially important in red blood cells (RBC). Given its central role in the regulation of redox state, it is understandable that mutations in the gene encoding G6PD can cause deficiency of the protein activity leading to clinical manifestations such as neonatal jaundice and acute hemolytic anemia. Recently, an extensive review has been published about variants in the g6pd gene; recognizing 186 mutations. In this work, we review the state of the art in G6PD deficiency, describing 217 mutations in the g6pd gene; we also compile information about 31 new mutations, 16 that were not recognized and 15 more that have recently been reported. In order to get a better picture of the effects of new described mutations in g6pd gene, we locate the point mutations in the solved three-dimensional structure of the human G6PD protein. We found that class I mutations have the most deleterious effects on the structure and stability of the protein.
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in humans causes severe disease, varying from mostly asymptomatic individuals to patients showing neonatal jaundice, acute hemolysis episodes or chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. In order to understand the effect of the mutations in G6PD gene function and its relation with G6PD deficiency severity, we report the construction, cloning and expression as well as the detailed kinetic and stability characterization of three purified clinical variants of G6PD that present in the Mexican population: G6PD Zacatecas (Class I), Vanua-Lava (Class II) and Viangchan (Class II). For all the G6PD mutants, we obtained low purification yield and altered kinetic parameters compared with Wild Type (WT). Our results show that the mutations, regardless of the distance from the active site where they are located, affect the catalytic properties and structural parameters and that these changes could be associated with the clinical presentation of the deficiency. Specifically, the structural characterization of the G6PD Zacatecas mutant suggests that the R257L mutation have a strong effect on the global stability of G6PD favoring an unstable active site. Using computational analysis, we offer a molecular explanation of the effects of these mutations on the active site.
Giardiasis is a worldwide parasitic disease that affects mainly children and immunosuppressed people. Side effects and the emergence of resistance over current used drugs make imperative looking for new antiparasitics through discovering of new biological targets and designing of novel drugs. Recently, it has determined that gastric proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) have anti-giardiasic activity. The glycolytic enzyme, triosephosphate isomerase (GlTIM), is one of its potential targets. Therefore, we employed the scaffold of PPI to design new compounds aimed to increase their antigiardial capacity by inactivating GlTIM. Here we demonstrated that two novel PPI-derivatives (BHO2 and BHO3), have better anti-giardiasic activity than omeprazole in concentrations around 120–130 µM, without cytotoxic effect on mammal cell cultures. The derivatives inactivated GlTIM through the chemical modification of Cys222 promoting local structural changes in the enzyme. Furthermore, derivatives forms adducts linked to Cys residues through a C-S bond. We demonstrated that PPI can be used as scaffolds to design better antiparasitic molecules; we also are proposing a molecular mechanism of reaction for these novel derivatives.
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the first enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway and is highly relevant in the metabolism of Giardia
lamblia. Previous reports suggested that the G6PD gene is fused with the 6-phosphogluconolactonase (6PGL) gene (6pgl). Therefore, in this work, we decided to characterize the fused G6PD-6PGL protein in Giardia
lamblia. First, the gene of g6pd fused with the 6pgl gene (6gpd::6pgl) was isolated from trophozoites of Giardia
lamblia and the corresponding G6PD::6PGL protein was overexpressed and purified in Escherichia coli. Then, we characterized the native oligomeric state of the G6PD::6PGL protein in solution and we found a catalytic dimer with an optimum pH of 8.75. Furthermore, we determined the steady-state kinetic parameters for the G6PD domain and measured the thermal stability of the protein in both the presence and absence of guanidine hydrochloride (Gdn-HCl) and observed that the G6PD::6PGL protein showed alterations in the stability, secondary structure, and tertiary structure in the presence of Gdn-HCl. Finally, computer modeling studies revealed unique structural and functional features, which clearly established the differences between G6PD::6PGL protein from G. lamblia and the human G6PD enzyme, proving that the model can be used for the design of new drugs with antigiardiasic activity. These results broaden the perspective for future studies of the function of the protein and its effect on the metabolism of this parasite as a potential pharmacological target.
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a key regulatory enzyme that plays a crucial role in the regulation of cellular energy and redox balance. Mutations in the gene encoding G6PD cause the most common enzymopathy that drives hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. To gain insights into the effects of mutations in G6PD enzyme efficiency, we have investigated the biochemical, kinetic, and structural changes of three clinical G6PD variants, the single mutations G6PD A+ (Asn126AspD) and G6PD Nefza (Leu323Pro), and the double mutant G6PD A− (Asn126Asp + Leu323Pro). The mutants showed lower residual activity (≤50% of WT G6PD) and displayed important kinetic changes. Although all Class III mutants were located in different regions of the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme and were not close to the active site, these mutants had a deleterious effect over catalytic activity and structural stability. The results indicated that the G6PD Nefza mutation was mainly responsible for the functional and structural alterations observed in the double mutant G6PD A−. Moreover, our study suggests that the G6PD Nefza and G6PD A− mutations affect enzyme functions in a similar fashion to those reported for Class I mutations.
Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5 (GDI) is an endophytic bacterium with potential biotechnological applications in industry and agronomy. The recent description of its complete genome and its principal metabolic enzymes suggests that glucose metabolism is accomplished through the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP); however, the enzymes participating in this pathway have not yet been characterized in detail. The objective of the present work was to clone, purify, and biochemically and physicochemically characterize glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) from GDI. The gene was cloned and expressed as a tagged protein in E. coli to be purified by affinity chromatography. The native state of the G6PD protein in the solution was found to be a tetramer with optimal activity at pH 8.8 and a temperature between 37 and 50 °C. The apparent Km values for G6P and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+) were 63 and 7.2 μM, respectively. Finally, from the amino acid sequence a three-dimensional (3D) model was obtained, which allowed the arrangement of the amino acids involved in the catalytic activity, which are conserved (RIDHYLGKE, GxGGDLT, and EKPxG) with those of other species, to be identified. This characterization of the enzyme could help to identify new environmental conditions for the knowledge of the plant–microorganism interactions and a better use of GDI in new technological applications.
G6PD deficiency is the most common enzymopathy, leading to alterations in the first step of the pentose phosphate pathway, which interferes with the protection of the erythrocyte against oxidative stress and causes a wide range of clinical symptoms of which hemolysis is one of the most severe. The G6PD deficiency causes several abnormalities that range from asymptomatic individuals to more severe manifestations that can lead to death. Nowadays, only 9.2% of all recognized variants have been related to clinical manifestations. It is important to understand the molecular basis of G6PD deficiency to understand how gene mutations can impact structure, stability, and enzymatic function. In this work, we reviewed and compared the functional and structural data generated through the characterization of 20 G6PD variants using different approaches. These studies showed that severe clinical manifestations of G6PD deficiency were related to mutations that affected the catalytic and structural nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) binding sites, and suggests that the misfolding or instability of the 3D structure of the protein could compromise the half-life of the protein in the erythrocyte and its activity.
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