Within the human testis, three entities of germ cell tumours are distinguished: the teratomas and yolk sac tumors of newborn and infants, the seminomas and nonseminomas of adolescents and young adults, referred to as testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT), and the spermatocytic seminomas. Characteristic chromosomal anomalies have been reported for each group, supporting their distinct pathogenesis. TGCT are the most common cancer in young adult men. The initiating pathogenetic event of these tumours occurs during embryonal development, affecting a primordial germ cell or gonocyte. Despite this intra-uterine initiation, the tumour will only be clinically manifest after puberty, with carcinoma in situ (IS) as the precursor. All invasive TGCT, both seminomas and nonseminomas, as well as CIS cells are aneuploid. The only consistent (structural) chromosomal abnormalities in invasive TGCT are gains of the short arm of chromosome 12, mostly due to isochromosome (i(12p)) formation. This suggests that an increase in copy number of a gene(s) on 12p is associated with the development of a clinically manifest TGCT. Despite the numerous (positional) candidate gene approaches that have been undertaken thus far, identification of a causative gene(s) has been hampered by the fact that most 12p gains involve rather large genomic intervals, containing unmanageable numbers of candidate genes. Several years ago, we initiated a search for 12p candidate genes using TGCT with a restricted 12p-amplification, cytogenetically identified as 12p11.2-p12.1. This approach is mainly based on identification of candidate genes mapped within the shortest region of overlap of amplification (SROA). In this review, data will be presented, which support the model that gain of 12p-sequences is associated with suppression of apoptosis and Sertoli cell-independence of CIS cells. So far, DAD-R is one of the most likely candidate genes involved in this process, possibly via N-glycosylation. Preliminary results on high through-put DNA- and cDNA array analyses of 12p-sequences will be presented.
We have previously identified amplification at 4q12 in testicular germ cell tumors of adolescents and adults centered around the KIT gene encoding a tyrosine kinase transmembrane receptor. Analysis of primary testicular germ cell tumors totaling 190 cases revealed 21% of the seminoma subtype with an increased copy number of KIT whereas this change was rarely found in the nonseminomas. In most cases, gain of KIT did not include the immediately flanking noncoding DNA or the flanking genes KDR and PDGFRA. Increased copy number of KIT was not found in the putative precursor lesion, carcinoma in situ (CIS), adjacent to tumor with this change. KIT overexpression was found independent of gain and KIT immunostaining was stronger in selected cases with gain of KIT compared to those without. Taken together with activating mutations of KIT in exon 17 identified in 13% of seminomas, this suggests that the KIT gene product plays a role in the progression of CIS towards seminoma, the further understanding of which may lead to novel less toxic therapeutic approaches. (Cancer Res 2005; 65(18): 8085-89)
All invasive testicular germ cell tumors of adolescents and adults (TGCTs), that is, seminomas and nonseminomas, show gain of 12p sequences, mostly as isochromosomes. Although several candidate genes have been suggested, the relevant gene(s) have not been identified yet. About 10% of testicular seminomas, however, show a more restricted amplification of the 12p11.2-p12.1 region, in which the various amplicons show an apparent overlap, allowing for the shortest region of amplification overlap approach, aiming at the identification of pathogenetically relevant sequences residing in this region. Here we report on a high-resolution 12p-amplicon architecture analysis using microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization, the results of which were subsequently confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization studies. The 12p-specific microarray contained 63 positionally selected BAC clones, which are more or less evenly distributed over the short arm of chromosome 12 (average spacing: less than 500 Kb), including 20 clones within the region of amplification. Out of a series of 17 seminomas, seven seminomas showed amplification of the whole amplicon region, of which three showed a dip in T/R value in the center of the amplified area. A more complex amplification pattern was found in the other 10 seminomas: three showed predominant amplification at the centromeric border; one mainly at the telomeric border; six showed a balanced amplification of both the centromeric and telomeric regions. The only nonseminoma investigated showed a structure in which the centromeric border was only amplified. These data support a mechanistic model in which at least two 12p genes, situated at the border regions of the amplicon, are positional candidates capable of actively supporting tumor progression in TGCTs.
We previously described a subset of MYC translocation-negative aggressive B-cell lymphomas resembling Burkitt lymphoma, characterized by proximal gains and distal losses in chromosome 11. In the 2016 WHO classification, these MYC-negative lymphomas were recognized as a new provisional entity, 'Burkitt-like lymphoma with 11q aberration'. Here we present an immunophenotype analysis of Burkitt-like lymphomas with 11q aberration. Cells were acquired by fine needle aspiration biopsy from 10 young adult patients, 80% of whom presented recurrence-free 5-year survival. Twenty-three MYC-positive Burkitt lymphomas, including three carrying both MYC rearrangement and 11q aberration, served as controls. By immunohistochemistry, all Burkitt-like lymphomas with 11q aberration were CD20+/CD10+/BCL6+/BCL2-/MUM1-/MYC+/EBV-, usually LMO2+/CD44-/CD43- and sometimes CD56+, and showed high proliferation rate. By flow cytometry, Burkitt-like lymphoma with 11q aberration immunophenotypically resembled MYC-positive Burkitt lymphoma, except for significantly (adjusted P<0.001) more frequent CD38 expression in Burkitt lymphoma (91% MYC-positive Burkitt lymphoma vs 10% Burkitt-like lymphoma with 11q aberration), more frequently diminished CD45 expression in Burkitt lymphoma (74% vs 10%), an exclusive CD16/CD56 and highly restricted CD8 expression in Burkitt-like lymphoma with 11q aberration (60% vs 0% and 40% vs 4%, respectively). We showed high diagnostic accuracy and effectiveness of flow cytometry in Burkitt lymphoma. CD16/CD56 expression without CD38 and the lack of CD16/CD56 with CD38 expression proves to be a reliable, fast, and cost-effective method for diagnosing 11q aberration and MYC rearrangements in CD10(+) aggressive lymphomas, respectively. In addition, we confirmed a pattern of an inverted duplication with telomeric loss of 11q, as a recurrent 11q abnormality, but one case presented alternative changes, possibly resulting in an equivalent molecular effect. Our findings reveal similarities along with subtle but essential differences in the immunophenotype of Burkitt-like lymphoma with 11q aberration and MYC-positive Burkitt lymphoma, important for the differential diagnosis, but also for understanding the pathogenesis of Burkitt-like lymphoma with 11q aberration.
ObjectivesThe latest revision of lymphoma’s World Health Organization classification describes the new provisional entity “Burkitt-like lymphoma with 11q aberration” (BLL, 11q) as lacking MYC rearrangement, but harboring the specific11q-gain/loss aberration. We report genetic characteristics of 11 lymphoma cases with this aberration.MethodsClassical cytogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and single nucleotide polymorphism/array comparative genomic hybridization.ResultsThe 11q aberrations were described as duplication, inversion, and deletion. Array comparative genomic hybridization showed two types of duplication: bigger than 50 megabase pairs (Mbp) and smaller than 20 Mbp, which were associated with bulky tumor larger than 20 cm and amplification of the 11q23.3 region, including KMT2A. Six cases revealed a normal FISH status of MYC and were diagnosed as BLL,11q. Five cases showed MYC rearrangement and were diagnosed as Burkitt lymphoma (BL) or high-grade B-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (HGBL, NOS).ConclusionsThe 11q-gain/loss is not specific for BLL, 11q, but occurs recurrently in MYC-positive BL and MYC-positive HGBL.
Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by specific morphological and immunophenotypic features. The basic genetic feature of BL is the rearrangement of MYC gene, visible as t(8;14)(q24;q32) translocation or its variant. However, some lymphomas with characteristic BL morphology are nowadays diagnosed as B-cell lymphoma unclassifiable with features intermediate between DLBCL and BL (Inter-DLBCL/BL) for biological or clinical reasons. We present four lymphomas without the MYC rearrangement presented typical Burkitt morphology, FCM immunophenotype with some deviations when compared to a typical BL. The cases were finally diagnosed as Inter-DLBCL/BL. All of them presented a recurrent abnormality within the chromosome 11: dup(11)(q23q13). We suppose that the dup(11)(q23q13), in absence of the MYC gene rearrangement, is connected with borderline lymphomas with a morphology similar or identical to that of the Burkitt lymphoma. Identifying such an aberration may be helpful in the diagnostics of Inter-DLBCL/BL eventually forming a distinct subgroup of lymphomas.
Revision of the fourth edition of the World Health Organisation (WHO) Classification of Haematopoietic and Lymphatic Tissues, which was published in 2017, introduced important changes updating the biology, pathology, genetics, and clinical presentation of aggressive B-cell lymphomas. High grade B-cell lymphomas (HG-BLs) replaced B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma, the new provisional entityBurkitt-like lymphoma with 11q aberration was identified, and some categories were upgraded, e.g. EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified. Still the histopathological diagnostics is based on morphology and immunoprofile, but to define the HGBLs evaluation of MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 gene statuses is required. According to the presented WHO criteria, in the comprehensive histopathological diagnostics of aggressive B-cell lymphomas a highly specialised diagnostic team including a pathologist, a molecular biologist, a geneticist, a haematologist, and immunophenotyping technicians is needed.
Fast and reliable differential diagnosis of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) vs. diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is of major importance for therapeutic decisions and patient outcome. Aggressive B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-NHLs) that do not belong to the abovementioned entities were categorized by the current WHO lymphoma classification as "B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between DLBCL and BL" (DLBCL/BL). We have recently described a DLBCL/BL subgroup with recurrent chromosome 11q aberrations, resembling BL (B-NHLs[11q]). Here, we analyzed 102 prospectively collected fine needle aspirates from patients with aggressive B-NHLs in order to investigate the potential of microRNA (miR)-155, its precursor BIC, as well as miR-21 and miR-26a to differentiate BL from DLBCL, and from DLBCL/BL that include B-NHLs[11q]. Both BL and DLBCL/BL cases, including B-NHLs[11q], demonstrated significantly lower expression levels of miR-155/BIC, miR-21, and miR-26a compared to primary DLBCL. In conclusion, the miRs expression in B-NHLs[11q] provides a new suggestion, in addition to pathomorphological and clinical similarities between classical, i.e., MYC translocation-positive BL, and B-NHLs[11q], to recognize the B-NHLs[11q] subgroup of DLBCL/BL category as a MYC translocation-negative variant of BL in most cases, and points to the potential utility of miR-155/BIC/miR-21/miR-26a for the differential diagnosis of a heterogeneous category of DLBCL/BL.
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