Elastic solutions for axisymmetric rotating disks made of functionally graded material with variable thickness are presented. The material properties and disk thickness profile are assumed to be represented by two power-law distributions. In the case of hollow disk, based on the form of the power-law distribution for the mechanical properties of the constituent components and the thickness profile function, both analytical and semi-analytical solutions are given under free-free and fixed-free boundary conditions. For the solid disk, only semianalytical solution is presented. The effects of the material grading index and the geometry of the disk on the stresses and displacements are investigated. It is found that a functionally graded rotating disk with parabolic or hyperbolic convergent thickness profile has smaller stresses and displacements compared with that of uniform thickness. It is seen that the maximum radial stress for the solid functionally graded disk with parabolic thickness profile is not at the centre like uniform thickness disk. Results of this paper suggest that a rotating functionally graded disk with parabolic concave or hyperbolic convergent thickness profile can be more efficient than the one with uniform thickness.
a b s t r a c tRotating disks have many applications in the aerospace industry such as gas turbines and gears. These disks normally work under thermo mechanical loads. Minimizing the weight of such components can help reduce the overall payload in aerospace industry. For this purpose, a rotating functionally graded (FG) disk with variable thickness under a steady temperature field is considered in this paper. Thermo elastic solutions and the weight of the disk are related to the material grading index and the geometry of the disk. It is found that a disk with parabolic or hyperbolic convergent thickness profile has smaller stresses and displacements compared to a uniform thickness disk. Maximum radial stress due to centrifugal load in the solid disk with parabolic thickness profile may not be at the center unlike uniform thickness disk. Functionally graded disk with variable thickness has smaller stresses due to thermal load compared to those with uniform thickness. It is seen that for a given value of grading index, the FG disk having concave thickness profile is the lightest in weight whereas the FG disk with uniform thickness profile is the heaviest. Also for any given thickness profile, the weight of the FG disk lies in between the weights of the all-metal and the all-ceramic disks.
a b s t r a c tAseptic loosening is one of the main reasons for the revision of a total knee replacement (TKR). The design of the key component of a TKR, the femoral component, is particularly problematic because its failure can be the result of different causes. This makes the development of new biomaterials for use in the femoral component a challenging task. This paper focuses on the engineering design aspects in order to understand the limitations of current materials and design deficiencies. The paper describes the introduction of a new biomaterial for a femoral component and justifies the recommendation to use multi-functional materials as a possible solution to aseptic loosening. The potential advantages of applying functionally graded biomaterials (FGBMs) in prosthetic femur are explained by reducing the leading causes of failure including wear, micro-motion and stress-shielding effect. The ideas presented in this paper can be used as the basis for further research on the feasibility and advantages of applying FGBM in other superior implant designs.
The initial induced compressive residual stresses relax during component operating life and it is important to consider the relaxation phenomenon in the design of the component. In this study, 2024-T 351 aluminium alloy specimens were shot peened under three different shotpeening intensities. Cyclic tests for two load magnitudes were performed for 1, 2, 10, 1000 and 10,000 cycles. The initial and final residual stresses and the cold work after each loading cycle were measured for the three shot-peening intensities and for the two load magnitudes using X-ray diffraction. The initial and final microhardnesses after each loading cycle load were also measured for the three shot-peening intensities. The results showed that the reduction in the residual stress, microhardness and cold work are dependent on the applied load. An empirical model was proposed to estimate the residual stress relaxation. The presented model incorporates parameters including the degree of cold work, initial induced residual stress and the number of applied loading cycles.
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