Background Adenosine (AD) elicits cardioprotection through A1-receptor (A1R) activation. Therapy with AD A1R agonists, however, is limited by undesirable actions of full agonism such as bradycardia. This study examined the effects of capadenoson (CAP), a partial AD A1R agonist, on left ventricular (LV) function and remodeling in dogs with heart failure (HF). Methods and Results 12 dogs with microembolization-induced HF were randomized to 12 weeks oral therapy with CAP (7.5 mg Bid, n=6) or to no therapy (Control, n=6). LV end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic (ESV) volumes, ejection fraction (EF), plasma norepinephrine (NE) and n-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (nt-pro BNP) were measured before (PRE) and 1 and 12 weeks after therapy (POST). LV tissue obtained at POST was used to assess volume fraction of interstitial fibrosis (VFIF), SERCA-2a activity, expression of mitochondria uncoupling proteins (UCP) and glucose transporters (GLUT). In controls, EDV and ESV increased and EF decreased significantly from PRE to POST (EF: 30±2 vs. 27±1 %, p<0.05). In CAP-treated dogs, EDV was unchanged; EF increased significantly after one week (36±2 vs. 27±2 %, p<0.05) with a further increase at POST (39±2 %, p<0.05) while ESV decreased. CAP significantly decreased VFIF, normalized SERCA-2a activity and expression of UCP-2 and -3, and GLUT-1 and -2 and significantly decreased NE and nt-pro BNP. Conclusion In HF dogs, CAP improves LV function and prevents progressive remodeling. Improvement of LV systolic function occurs early after initiating therapy. The results support development of partial AD A1R agonists for the treatment of chronic HF.
Adenosine, a purine nucleoside, is present in all cells in tightly regulated concentrations. It has many different physiological effects in the whole body and in the heart. Adenosine activates four G protein-coupled receptors A1, A2a, A2b, and A3. Activation of myocardial A1 receptors has been shown to inhibit a variety of myocardial pathologies associated with ischemia and reperfusion injury, including stunning, arrhythmogenesis, coronary and ventricular dysfunction, acute myocardial infarction, apoptosis, and chronic heart failure, implying several options for new cardiovascular therapies for diseases, like angina pectoris, control of cardiac rhythm, ischemic injury during an acute coronary syndrome, or heart failure. However, the main issue of using full A1 receptor agonists in such indications is the broad physiologic spectrum of cardiac and extracardiac effects. Desired A1 receptor-mediated protective and regenerative cardiovascular effects might be counter-regulated by unintended side effects when considering full A1 receptor agonists. These effects can be overcome by partial A1 agonists. Partial A1 agonists can be used to trigger only some of the physiological responses of receptor activation depending on endogenous adenosine levels and on receptor reserve in different tissues. CV-Therapeutics reported the identification of a partial A1 receptor agonist CVT-3619, and recently, another partial A1 receptor agonist VCP28 was published. Both compounds are adenosine derivatives. Adenosine-like A1 receptor agonists often have the drawback of a short half-life and low bioavailability, making them not suitable for chronic oral therapy. We identified the first non-adenosine-like partial A1 receptor agonist(s) with pharmacokinetics optimal for oral once daily treatment and characterized the qualities of the partial character of the A1 receptor agonist(s) in preclinical and clinical studies.
Heart failure (HF) represents a global public health and economic problem associated with unacceptable rates of death, hospitalization, and healthcare expenditure. Despite available therapy, HF carries a prognosis comparable to many forms of cancer with a 5-year survival rate of ~50%. The current treatment paradigm for HF with reduced ejection fraction (EF) centers on blocking maladaptive neurohormonal activation and decreasing cardiac workload with therapies that concurrently lower blood pressure and heart rate. Continued development of hemodynamically active medications for stepwise addition to existing therapies carries the risk of limited tolerability and safety. Moreover, this treatment paradigm has thus far failed for HF with preserved EF. Accordingly, development of hemodynamically neutral HF therapies targeting primary cardiac pathologies must be considered. In this context, a partial adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) agonist holds promise as a potentially hemodynamically neutral therapy for HF that could simultaneous improve cardiomyocyte energetics, calcium homeostasis, cardiac structure and function, and long-term clinical outcomes when added to background therapies. In this review, we describe the physiology and pathophysiology of HF as it relates to adenosine agonism, examine the existing body of evidence and biologic rationale for modulation of adenosine A1R activity, and review the current state of drug development of a partial A1R agonist for the treatment of HF.
Adenosine exerts a variety of physiological effects by binding to cell surface G-protein-coupled receptor subtypes, namely, A1, A2a, A2b, and A3. The central physiological role of adenosine is to preclude tissue injury and promote repair in response to stress. In the heart, adenosine acts as a cytoprotective modulator, linking cardiac function to metabolic demand predominantly via activation of adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs), which leads to inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity, modulation of protein kinase C, and opening of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Activation of myocardial adenosine A1Rs has been shown to modulate a variety of pathologies associated with ischemic cardiac injury, including arrhythmogenesis, coronary and ventricular dysfunction, apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, and ventricular remodeling. Partial A1R agonists are agents that are likely to elicit favorable pharmacological responses in heart failure (HF) without giving rise to the undesirable cardiac and extra-cardiac effects observed with full A1R agonism. Preclinical data have shown that partial adenosine A1R agonists protect and improve cardiac function at doses that do not result in undesirable effects on heart rate, atrioventricular conduction, and blood pressure, suggesting that these compounds may constitute a valuable new therapy for chronic HF. Neladenoson bialanate (BAY1067197) is the first oral partial and highly selective A1R agonist that has entered clinical development for the treatment of HF. This review provides an overview of adenosine A1R-mediated signaling in the heart, summarizes the results from preclinical and clinical studies of partial A1R agonists in HF, and discusses the potential benefits of these drugs in the clinical setting.
eNOS(-/-) mice developed diastolic dysfunction; this was rescued by ET-1 transgenic overexpression. This study furthermore suggests that cardiac ET-1 overexpression in case of eNOS deficiency causes specifically the regulation of proteins playing a role in oxidative stress, myocytes contractility, and energy metabolism.
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