The middle meningeal artery (MMA) is a very important artery in neurosurgery. Many diseases, including dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF), pseudoaneurysm, true aneurysm, traumatic arteriovenous fistula (AVF), moyamoya disease (MMD), recurrent chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH), migraine and meningioma, can involve the MMA. In these diseases, the lesions occur in either the MMA itself and treatment is necessary, or the MMA is used as the pathway to treat the lesions; therefore, the MMA is very important to the development and treatment of a variety of neurosurgical diseases. However, no systematic review describing the importance of MMA has been published. In this study, we used the PUBMED database to perform a review of the literature on the MMA to increase our understanding of its role in neurosurgery. After performing this review, we found that the MMA was commonly used to access DAVFs and meningiomas. Pseudoaneurysms and true aneurysms in the MMA can be effectively treated via endovascular or surgical removal. In MMD, the MMA plays a very important role in the development of collateral circulation and indirect revascularization. For recurrent CDSHs, after burr hole irrigation and drainage have failed, MMA embolization may be attempted. The MMA can also contribute to the occurrence and treatment of migraines. Because the ophthalmic artery can ectopically originate from the MMA, caution must be taken to avoid causing damage to the MMA during operations.
Dolichoarteriopathies of the internal carotid artery (DICAs) are not uncommon, and although several studies have investigated DICAs, several questions regarding the etiology and best management course for DICAs remain unanswered. It is also difficult to correlate the occurrence of DICAs with the onset of clinical symptoms. Therefore, we surveyed the literature in PubMed and performed a review of DICAs to offer a comprehensive picture of our understanding of DICAs. We found that DICAs can be classified into three types, specifically tortuous, coiling and kinking, and are not associated with atherosclerotic risk factors. Cerebral hemodynamic changes are mainly associated with the degree of bending of DICAs. DICAs can result in symptoms of the brain and eyes due to insufficient blood supply and can co-occur with a pulsatile cervical mass, a pharyngeal bulge and pulsation. The diagnostic tools for the assessment of DICAs include Doppler ultrasonography, computed tomography angiography (CTA), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and although DSA remains the gold standard, Doppler ultrasonography is a convenient method that provides useful data for the morphological evaluation of DICAs. CTA and MRA are efficient methods for detecting the morphology of the cervical segment of DICAs. Some DICAs should be treated surgically based on certain indications, and several methods, including correcting the bending or shortening of DICAs, have been developed for the treatment of DICAs. The appropriate treatment of DICAs results in good outcomes and is associated with low morbidity and mortality rates. However, despite the success of surgical reconstruction, an appropriate therapeutic treatment remains a subject of numerous debates due to the lack of multicentric, randomized, prospective studies.
Moyamoya disease (MMD) involves progressive occlusion of the intracranial internal carotid artery resulting in formation of moyamoya-like vessels at the base of the brain. It can be characterized by hemorrhage or ischemia. Direct vascular bypass is the main and most effective treatment of MMD. However, patients with MMD differ from those with normal cerebral vessels. MMD patients have unstable intracranial artery hemodynamics and a poor blood flow reserve; therefore, during the direct bypass of superficial temporal artery (STA)-middle cerebral artery (MCA) anastomosis, perioperative risk factors and anesthesia can affect the hemodynamics of these patients. When brain tissue cannot tolerate a high blood flow rate, it becomes prone to hyperperfusion syndrome, which leads to neurological function defects and can even cause intracranial hemorrhage in severe cases. The brain tissue is prone to infarction when hemodynamic equilibrium is affected. In addition, bypass vessels become susceptible to occlusion or atrophy when blood resistance increases. Even compression of the temporalis affects bypass vessels. Because the STA is used in MMD surgery, the scalp becomes ischemic and is likely to develop necrosis and infection. These complications of MMD surgery are difficult to manage and are not well understood. To date, no systematic studies of the complications that occur after direct bypass in MMD have been performed, and reported complications are hidden among various case studies; therefore, this paper presents a review and summary of the literature in PubMed on the complications of direct bypass in MMD.
Currently, the treatment of blood blister-like aneurysms (BBAs) of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) is challenging and utilizes many therapeutic methods, including direct clipping and suturing, clipping after wrapping, clipping after suturing, coil embolization, stent-assisted coil embolization, multiple overlapping stents, flow-diverting stents, covered stents, and trapping with or without bypass. In these therapeutic approaches, the optimal treatment method for BBAs has not yet been defined based on the current understanding of BBAs of the supraclinoid ICA. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to review the literature from PubMed to discuss and analyze the pros and cons of the above approaches while adding our own viewpoints to the discussion. Among the surgical methods, direct clipping was the easiest method if the compensation of the collateral circulation of the intracranial distal ICA was sufficient or direct clipping did not induce stenosis in the parent artery. In addition, the clipping after wrapping technique should be chosen as the optimal surgical modality to prevent rebleeding from these lesions. Among the endovascular methods, multiple overlapping stents (≥3) with coils may be a feasible alternative for the treatment of ruptured BBAs. In addition, flow-diverting stents appear to have a higher rate of complete occlusion and a lower rate of retreatment and are a promising treatment method. Finally, when all treatments failed or the compensation of the collateral circulation of the intracranial distal ICA was insufficient, the extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) arterial bypass associated with surgical or endovascular trapping, a complex and highly dangerous method, was used as the treatment of last resort.
At present, there is limited understanding of chronic total occlusion (CTO) of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Therefore, the present report collected related cases from PubMed and reviewed the literature. Cerebral vessels may form collateral circulation immediately or gradually following CTO of the ICA. The natural history of CTO of the ICA includes a variety of outcomes, all of which are biased toward a non-benign progressive process and are characterized by insufficient cerebral perfusion, embolus detachment and cognitive dysfunction. The majority of cases of CTO of the ICA require treatment. In early studies, the results of external-ICA bypass were unsatisfactory, while recanalization is now considered the only viable option. The current treatment indications mainly depend on the degree of injury to the cerebrovascular reserve and the extent to which the oxygen extraction fraction is increased. The length, height and duration of ICA occlusion are also relevant, though more frequently, the condition depends on multiple factors. Endovascular interventional recanalization, carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and hybrid surgery may be conducted in a select group of patients. As novel materials are developed, the success rate of simple recanalization may gradually increase; however, hybrid surgery may be more representative of the current trend, as advanced CEA can remove carotid atherosclerosis plaques, thus reducing the technological demands of the subsequent interventional recanalization. There are many complications that may result from recanalization following CTO of the ICA, including hyperperfusion and technical errors; therefore, the operation must be conducted carefully. If the recanalization is successful, it typically results in a stable improvement of patient condition in the long term. However, despite these conclusions, more studies are required in the future to further improve current understanding of CTO of the ICA.
Background Though flow diverter is a safe and efficient modality, some patients can experience delayed aneurysmal rupture. The mechanism of delayed rupture is still obscure to us. Methods We performed a systematic search in the PubMed database for patients with delayed rupture of intracranial aneurysms after flow diverter placement. Results A total of 36 articles reporting on 60 patients were included in the final analysis. Of the 49 patients with description of presenting symptoms, six (12.2%) patients were incidentally diagnosed, 39 (87.8%) patients were admitted for aneurysmal rupture or mass effect. Multiple flow diverters were used in 38.3% (18/47) of the patients. Coil assistance was applied in 13.0% (7/54) of the patients. Delayed aneurysmal rupture led to intracranial hemorrhage or carotid–cavernous sinus fistula (CCF) in 76.8% (43/56) and 23.2% (13/56) of the patients, respectively. Of the 55 patients with description of outcome, 14 (25.5%) patients achieved good recovery, one (1.8%) patient was severely disabled, 40 (72.7%) patients died. All of the patients in the CCF group survived and experienced good recovery. Conclusion Increased intra-aneurysmal pressure, destabilization of the aneurysm wall by intra-aneurysmal thrombus, persistent residual intra-aneurysmal flow, characteristics of the specific aneurysm, and mechanical injury by the flow diverter might conjointly contribute to the final delayed rupture. There has been no established preventive measure to decrease the incidence of delayed rupture yet. The treatment and outcome depend on the presentation of delayed rupture. Patients presenting with aneurysm-related intracranial hemorrhage have a dismal outcome. Those presenting with CCFs usually have a satisfactory recovery.
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.
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