Purpose To determine whether altered eating habits and periods, especially the pre-dawn meal, during Ramadan fasting have any significant effect on intraocular pressure (IOP), tear secretion, corneal and anterior chamber parameters. Methods IOP, basal tear secretion (BTS), reflex tear secretion (RTS), and Pentacam measurements of 31 healthy volunteers were performed at 0800 and 1600 hours during Ramadan fasting and 1 month later during non-fasting period. Results Comparison of measurements between fasting and non-fasting periods at 0800 hours revealed significantly higher values for IOP (P ¼ 0.005), RTS (P ¼ 0.006), and BTS (P ¼ 0.014) during fasting. Conversely at 1600 hours, IOP was significantly lower during fasting (P ¼ 0.013) and no statistically significant difference was noted for RTS and BTS. IOP showed a diurnal variation of 2.45 mmHg (Po0.001) and BTS showed a 3.06 mm decrease (P ¼ 0.04) during the fasting period. No significant differences could be found in the corneal and anterior chamber parameters during fasting and non-fasting periods. Conclusions Our results revealed that fluid loading at the pre-dawn meal during Ramadan fasting might increase the IOP and tear secretion in the early morning period and these values decrease remarkably at the end of 12 h of fasting due to dehydration.
This study was designed to determine whether a new form of treatment of diabetic retinopathy (DR) was acceptable to patients and whether reduction in the maximal activity of rods in diabetes could affect the progress of DR. Methods In 12 patients, trans-lid retinal illumination of one eye was employed during sleep to prevent the depolarisation of rods and thus reduce their metabolic activity. Techniques A headband was used to place a source of chemical light over one eye, with its fellow as a control. Measurements Colour contrast thresholds were measured before and after a period of treatment in treated eyes, and the changes were compared to those in untreated fellow eyes, and areas of 'dark retinal anomalies' (microaneurysms, dot haemorrhages) were measured at the same time points. Results Patients found this intervention to be acceptable, and no adverse effects were noted. In the majority of cases, and for each outcome measure, the treated eyes improved relative to their fellows. The intervention significantly reduced the tritan thresholds in treated eyes relative to their fellows (P ¼ 0.03), and the area of dark retinal anomalies decreased in treated eyes and increased in untreated eyes, with a similar probability.
Ophthalmologists should be suspicious of topical anesthetic abuse keratopathy in young male manual laborers specialized in welding business and foundry work presenting with persistent epithelial defects, ring-shaped keratitis, and accompanying severe ocular pain.
More than 270 million people worldwide have hearing loss that affects normal communication. Although astonishing progress has been made in the identification of more than 50 genes for deafness during the past decade, the majority of deafness genes are yet to be identified. In this study, we mapped a previously unknown autosomal-recessive nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss locus (DFNB91) to chromosome 6p25 in a consanguineous Turkish family. The degree of hearing loss was moderate to severe in affected individuals. We subsequently identified a nonsense mutation (p.E245X) in SERPINB6, which is located within the linkage interval for DFNB91 and encodes for an intracellular protease inhibitor. The p.E245X mutation cosegregated in the family as a completely penetrant autosomal-recessive trait and was absent in 300 Turkish controls. The mRNA expression of SERPINB6 was reduced and production of protein was absent in the peripheral leukocytes of homozygotes, suggesting that the hearing loss is due to loss of function of SERPINB6. We also demonstrated that SERPINB6 was expressed primarily in the inner ear hair cells. We propose that SERPINB6 plays an important role in the inner ear in the protection against leakage of lysosomal content during stress and that loss of this protection results in cell death and sensorineural hearing loss.
Our results show that serum levels of the growth factor YKL-40 may be a useful prognostic indicator of outcome for patients with locally advanced breast cancer. Further studies are required to fully elucidate the biological function of YKL-40 in breast cancer.
ABSTRACT.Purpose: This study aimed to observe changes in anterior chamber parameters and the course of intraocular pressure (IOP) after injection of 0.1 ml intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (TA) and to determine differences between phakic and pseudophakic eyes without vitreous reflux. Methods: A prospective observational clinical trial was conducted with 89 patients who received an intravitreal injection of TA and did not display vitreous reflux. Intraocular pressure measurements were made before injection and at 3, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mins after injection. Pentacam measurements were made before injection and at 5, 15, 30 and 45 mins after injection. Results: Anterior chamber depth (ACD) and anterior chamber volume (ACV) were significantly greater in pseudophakic eyes than in phakic eyes at all measurement time-points (p < 0.001). There was a decrease in both ACD and ACV at 5 mins after injection, and a gradual increase to normal values was observed at 15, 30 and 45 mins after injection in all study eyes. Compared with pre-injection measurements, changes in ACD and ACV were statistically significant at each time-point in both phakic and pseudophakic eyes (p < 0.001). A significant increase in IOP within 3 mins of injection was observed in both groups and a more rapid decrease 10 mins after injection was observed in pseudophakic eyes. The differences in IOP between phakic and pseudophakic eyes at all measurement time-points, except baseline and 3 mins after injection, were statistically significant (p < 0.001). Intraocular pressure < 30 mmHg and < 24 mmHg was recorded in all pseudophakic eyes at 10 and 20 mins after intravitreal injection, respectively. Conclusions: Following intravitreal injection of 0.1 ml TA, without vitreous reflux, IOP decreased to safe levels more quickly in pseudophakic eyes than in phakic eyes. Although there were more pronounced changes in anterior chamber parameters in pseudophakic eyes, these changes were reversible without any residual clinical significance.
Bevacizumab and ranibizumab are both effective antivascular endothelial growth factor drugs preferred in the treatment of DME. Our comparison of both therapies on the same patients suggested that the effect on BCVA was not statistically different, but ranibizumab provided more decrease in CSMT.
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