Sarcopenia and previous abdominal surgery are independent risk factors for complications after surgery for colorectal cancer. Including a functional aspect to the definition of sarcopenia may result in a better prediction of postoperative complications.
High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) plays a context-dependent role in autophagy, which is required for hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation. However, the significance of HMGB1-induced HSCs autophagy in liver fibrosis has not been elucidated. Here, we first documented an enrichment of peripheral and intrahepatic HMGB1 signal in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver fibrosis progression, and presented a direct evidence of anatomic proximity of HMGB1 with a-SMA (a marker for HSCs activation) in cirrhotic liver specimens. Then, we demonstrated the autophagy-inducing effects by serum-sourced HMGB1 in both primary murine HSCs and human HSCs cell line (LX-2), reflected by increased number of autophagic vacuoles (AVs) under the transmission electron microscope (TEM) and up-regulated protein expression of lipidated microtubule-associated light chain 3 (LC3-II) (a marker for autophagosome) in Western blot analysis. Intriguingly, there is a possible translocation of endogenous HMGB1 from the nucleus to cytoplasm to extracellular space, during exogenous HMGB1-induced HSCs autophagy. Meanwhile, the dose- and time-dependent effects by recombinant HMGB1 (rHMGB1) in enhancing LX-2 autophagy and fibrogenesis have been revealed with activated extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and restrained mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/STAT3 signaling pathways. Additionally, the ERK or JNK inhibitor could not only inhibit rHMGB1-induced autophagy and fibrogenesis in LX-2 cells, but also restore the suppressed mTOR and STAT3 pathways. Furthermore, using LC3-siRNA transfected LX-2, we found HMGB1-induced fibrogenesis is dependent on its autophagy-inducing effects. Finally, we elucidated the involvement of extracellular HMGB1-receptor for advenced glycation end product (RAGE) axis and endogenous HMGB1 in exogenous HMGB1-induced effects. Our findings could open new perspectives in developing an antifibrotic therapy by targetting the HSCs autophagy.
Laparoscopic colorectal resection significantly reduced total hospital stay and number of complications when compared with open surgery in the setting of suboptimal ERAS programs, but the benefits of laparoscopic colorectal resection remain to be proved within optimal ERAS programs.
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