Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of entrepreneurial orientation and organizational culture on job satisfaction, organizational commitment and employee’s performance. Design/methodology/approach This is a quantitative approach, which is based on cross-sectional data. In total, 326 usable cases are processed to infer the results through the structural equation model. Findings The results revealed a positive and significant impact of organizational commitment, job satisfaction and organizational culture on employee’s performance. An entrepreneurial orientation has a positive and significant impact on organizational commitment. Job satisfaction is impacted by organizational commitment, while organizational culture is influenced by job satisfaction. On the other hand, entrepreneurial orientation has a non-significant impact on employee’s performance. Practical implications Employers may shape the organizational culture and boost the general level of job satisfaction of their employees. Further, the study enriches the organizational behavior literature by recognizing and empirically validating the impact of entrepreneurial orientation and organizational culture on job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and employee’s performance in the small and medium enterprises sector of Pakistan. Originality/value The findings of the current study may help in creating a better understanding of job satisfaction and delineating its association with organizational culture.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the attitudes and intentions of individuals towards entrepreneurship with the support of theory of planned behaivour (TPB). This research may contribute to the growing body of knowledge that has begun to explore attitudes and intentions of individuals for self-employment in a developing country. Design/methodology/approach – This is an initial part of a longitudinal study in which survey instrument has been adapted for data collection. A random sampling was applied to the students of public and private higher educational institutions of a developing country. For data analysis, Statistical Package for Social Science 20 versions for Windows were used to test the hypotheses through descriptive, Pearson’s correlations and multiple regression analysis techniques. Findings – Results of the study showed that all variables are reliable and valid. However, internal consistency among the variables has been found. By using Pearson’s correlations, entrepreneurship intention was found to be significantly and positively correlated to attitudes towards entrepreneurship. A high correlation was found between entrepreneurship intentions and attitudes towards behaviour and low correlation was between innovation and attitudes towards behaivour. However, all independent variables were found positively and significantly related to dependent variable except personal control. Research limitations/implications – This study possess limitations such as only quantitative data were obtained for educational institutions. Second limitation is collecting data from small number of samples. Third limitation is use of few variables with direct relationship approach. This study may support the management and practitioners of human resources management and organisational behaviour in assessing and evaluating employee attitudes and behaviours in the organisation. Originality/value – Based on real facts, this study provides empirical considerable evidence of individuals’ attitudes and intentions towards the entrepreneurship. Results indicate that that TPB theory factors such as attitudes towards the behaviour, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control and personal and social attitudinal characteristic like achievement, self-esteem, and innovation are important for the development of entrepreneurial attitudes and intentions
Purpose Nowadays, entrepreneurship is regarded as an indispensable means for economic development. In this regard, promoting entrepreneurship is a necessity for every economy. The purpose of this paper is to identify factors that may influence students’ entrepreneurial intentions. Design/methodology/approach The conceptual framework underlying this study is the theory of planned behavior, and the study proposes a descriptive methodology in which cross-sectional data are randomly collected from the different public sector universities of Pakistan. A survey questionnaire was used as a means for data collection. The respondents were bachelor’s as well as master’s degree students who are pursuing degrees in entrepreneurship or education. After cleaning the data, 385 usable answers were analyzed. The response rate was 60 percent. Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21.0 was used for data analysis. Findings The results of Pearson’s correlation and multiple regression analysis showed that attitudes toward behavior and subjective norms have a positive and significant relationship with entrepreneurial intention. On the other hand, perceived behavioral control has no significant relationship with entrepreneurial intention. Originality/value Such a study may provide useful insights into the state of entrepreneurship education for policy makers and planners in universities as well as in government, regarding the younger generation, particularly, to reduce the burden of graduate unemployment.
Purpose This study aims to explore individuals’ attitudes and intentions towards mask purchase in Pakistan at an initial outbreak of COVID-19. Design/methodology/approach The study is quantitatively based on the cross-sectional data. The data are collected through a survey questionnaire. Convenience sampling strategy is used to target the individuals of Pakistan. At the first, 650 questionnaires were distributed. In return, the authors received 321 raw samples with the response rate of 53.5%. Finally, 316 useful samples are proceeded to infer the final results. Findings The structural equation model’s results demonstrate a positive and significant effect of fear of complication of COVID-19, knowledge about COVID-19 and health consciousness on attitudes towards the mask. Further, attitudes towards mask are found to be the robust analyst of mask purchase intention. Research limitations/implications The study used cross-sectional data through a single source of data collection. The findings of the survey are on the sample size of 316. Practical implications The study would help policymakers to formulate the strategies to make aware individuals regarding their health and COVID-19 issues. The study would provide the guidelines to the government agents of Pakistan to combat with COVID-19 through the purchase of mask. The shopkeepers would be aware to observe the intentions and attitudes of consumers towards mask. Originality/value The outcomes of this study offer a shred of empirical evidence for attitudes and intentions regarding the purchase of mask, particularly for developing country settings.
The effect of proactive environmental strategies (PES) on corporate performance has been debated extensively among academics; however, the significance of the pathway of those strategies—internal green integration (IGI) through greening the supplier (GTS) and environmental collaboration with suppliers (ECS)—remains undecided. This study examines environmental performance (EP) through GTS, IGI, and ECS. It also examines the direct link between PES and IGI. A conceptual framework was designed following a rigorous review of the literature. A survey questionnaire was used to collect cross‐sectional data from a random sample of manufacturing firms, obtaining 196 usable samples. Using AMOS, the structural equal modeling found a positive and significant impact of PES on IGI. Significant predictors of EP were GTS, IGI, and ECS. The findings of the study can provide managers with guidelines for dealing with business and environmental concerns. They can also contribute to creating strategies for environmental protection and management and reducing adverse effects on the environment. Finally, by examining the direct links between GTS, ECS, and EP, particularly in a developing context, the study may contribute to the literature of environmental policy.
The current study sought to predict the inclination toward green entrepreneurship among the younger generation. The study employed a deductive approach by collecting cross‐sectional data. Bachelor and Master's degree students in business management and entrepreneurship courses comprised the respondents. The study analyzed 284 usable survey questionnaires in its final estimation. The results obtained by employing structural equation modeling (SEM) show the positive and significant impact of sustainability orientation and sustainability education on the green entrepreneurship inclination. In contrast, the nonsignificant effect of self‐efficacy on green entrepreneurship inclination is detected among respondents. The study's findings would support the government, policy makers, and university authorities in developing a tailor‐made awareness program through building a curriculum that could offer greater inclination toward green and sustainable education. The outcomes may lead to providing a better living place for future generations worldwide.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE) in a developing country (Pakistan). The literature reports that entrepreneurship education does not enhance the level of ESE of the students. In the same vein, it is strongly emphasized that self-efficacy is the basic element in the entrepreneur’s undertakings. However, limited research has been conducted on the subject and the factors that impact ESE in the context of developing economies. Design/methodology/approach A quantitative approach was adopted, and data were collected from the 564 target respondents of different private and public universities of Pakistan. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the association between the variables of the conceptual model. Findings This study found a positive and significant impact of the predictors, entrepreneurial knowledge, entrepreneurial experiences, instrumental readiness and risk propensity on ESE among the students. Practical implications The findings of the study will help in developing self-efficacy for entrepreneurship in young potential entrepreneurs. They will also assist higher education management in developing and designing entrepreneurship academic curriculum and programs for the achievement of program learning outcomes. In addition, the findings will contribute to the literature of entrepreneurship and self-efficacy factors in the context of the developing country. Originality/value The results of the study confirm empirically tested factors that have a positive impact on ESE in a developing country setting.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors that affect the entrepreneurial leadership in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) of Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach A conceptual framework is developed after reviewing a vigorous literature. This is a quantitative methodology in which cross-sectional data are collected from top managers and founders in SMEs of Pakistan through a survey questionnaire. The random technique is applied for the collection of data. The total samples are 352. Initially, 500 survey questionnaires are distributed through personal visits in different cities of Pakistan. The returned rate is noticed as 70 percent. Findings The data are analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 24.0. The overall Cronbach’s α reliability is 0.866. On the other hand, the α for all variables (dependent and independent) is observed within the adequate ranges. The overall findings reveal that there is a positive and significant relationship among strategic factor, motivational factor, personality factor, communicative factor and entrepreneurial leadership. Practical implications This study may contribute to existing efforts to assimilate the arenas of strategy, motivation, communication, leadership and entrepreneurship. In addition, by reviewing the outcomes of present study, the policy makers and planners may further concentrate for promoting SMEs sector that is famous as a backbone for economic development. Originality/value This study is original and valuable with respect to data and context. The findings of such study may play a substantial role in the stability of the economy in Pakistan through enriching the SMEs sector.
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