a b s t r a c tIn this article, an overview is presented of the growth of work in human-computer interaction (HCI) over the last 40 years. Inevitably much must be omitted, but the referenced papers may fill some of the gaps. Various formative influences and contributing disciplines are noted. Aspects of research and human factors knowledge are prominent, but attention is also given to technology, applied problems, and design for usability. Finally, after summarizing the growth in three age-group partitions, some of the major threads of development are noted under the heading of continuities from the past and perspectives into the future.
In this article, an overview is presented of the growth of over 40 years comprehensively. Unavoidably much must work in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) over the last be omitted, and every author has his/her orientation; mine 40 years. Inevitably much must be omitted, but the referis of course British and European. But I hope that the enced papers may fill some of the gaps. Various formareferenced papers may fill some of the gaps; moreover, tive influences and contributing disciplines are noted. an excellent recent review, with perhaps a slightly more Aspects of research and human factors knowledge are prominent, but attention is also given to technology, ap-North-American orientation by Baecker, Grudin, Buxplied problems, and design for usability. Finally, after ton, & Greenberg (1995) in their Chapter 1, ''A Historical summarizing the growth in three age-group partitions, and Intellectual Perspective,'' should be read as a parallel some of the major threads of development are noted to this article. Finally, a review of HCI technology has under the heading of continuities from the past and perrecently appeared on the web which will be of interest spectives into the future.as a complement to this article (Myers, 1996).
Introduction 2. Background and ProgenitorsWhen in 1957 and 1959 at EMI in Britain (similar to RCA in the USA), I redesigned ergonomically the op-
Human-Oriented Disciplines erating consoles for the EMIac analogue computerThe disciplines from which knowledge and methods (Shackel, 1959a(Shackel, , 1959b and the EMIdec 2400 digital are drawn to help understand better, and thus better to computer (Shackel, 1962), nothing could have been furdesign for, the human side of human-computer interacther from my thoughts than that I would be looking back tion include philosophy, physiology, medicine, psycholnearly 40 years on and reviewing some of what was only ogy, and especially ergonomics (or human factors). Exstarting then. While they were exciting times, only a few cept for ergonomics, these disciplines were developed in people at that time foresaw the growth of the whole new the 18th or 19th centuries. Ergonomics is an applied scifield now called Human-Computer Interaction (HCI).ence and technology, established this century, and, from HCI is a major interdisciplinary conjunction of several the beginning, with close ties to engineering and industry. sciences and technologies; indeed some of the evidence In Great Britain, what is now called ergonomics had to be presented in this review suggests that it is fast beits beginning in the scientific study of human problems coming an established discipline in its own right. The first in ordnance factories during World War I. World War II recorded papers in the literature were published nearly led to greater emphasis not merely on matching men to 40 years ago, including the prospect for ''man-computer machines by selection and training, but also, much more symbiosis'' heralded by Licklider (1960). It is nearly 30 than previously, to the designing of equipment so th...
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.