Recently, cellulose nanocrystals (CNs) have attracted wide attention owing to their superior properties compared to their bulk materials. For example, they represent an outstanding model for fabricating green metallic/metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs). In this study, two CNs (carboxylated CNs and sulfated CNs) extracted from agro-wastes of palm sheath fibers were used as templates for the facile and green synthesis of ZnO NPs by employing the sono-co-precipitation method. The obtained nanomaterials were characterized using TEM, EDX, UV–visible, DLS, FT-IR, and XRD analysis. As a result, the size and concentration of synthesized ZnO NPs were inversely proportional to one another and were affected by the CNs utilized and the reaction temperature used. Contagious diseases incited by multifarious toxigenic bacteria present severe threats to human health. The fabricated bio-nanocomposites were evaluated in terms of their antimicrobial efficacy by agar well diffusion method and broth microdilution assay, showing that CN–ZnO bio-nanocomposites were effective against the tested Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella) and Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. The influence of the subinhibitory concentrations of these suspensions on the expression of the most critical virulence toxin genes of the tested strains was effective. Significant downregulation levels were observed through toxigenic operons to both fabricated CN–ZnO bio-nanocomposites with a fold change ranging from 0.004 to 0.510, revealing a decline in the capacity and virulence of microorganisms to pose infections. Therefore, these newly fabricated CNS–ZnO bio-nanocomposites could be employed rationally in food systems as a novel preservative to inhibit microbial growth and repress the synthesis of exotoxins.
A total of 100 broiler chickens were examined for the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by standard microbiological techniques. Susceptibility pattern for amikacin and cefotaxime was performed by Kirby-Bauer and microdilution assays. Then, checkerboard titration in trays was applied and FIC was measured to identify the type of interaction between the two antibiotics. The ability of isolates to form in vitro biofilm was detected by two methods, one qualitative (CRA) and the other quantitative (MTP), followed by investigating the effect of each antibiotic alone and in combination on the expression of biofilm genes. The overall isolation percentage of P. aeruginosa was 21%. Resistance to each antibiotic was more than 50%; the range of cefotaxime MIC was 8-512 μg/ml, while amikacin MIC range was 1-64 μg/ml. The FIC index established a synergistic association between tested two drugs in 17 (81%) of isolates and the remaining represent partially synergism. The qualitative technique showed that only 66.6% of the isolates were considered biofilm producers, while the quantitative technique showed that 90.4% of the isolates were biofilm producers. Further to RT-PCR investigation, significant repression against biofilm-forming genes (filC, pelA, and pslA) was observed for the combination of antibiotics when compared with monotherapy.
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