Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and carotid artery distensibility are reliable screening methods for vascular alterations and the assessment of cardiovascular risk in adult and pediatric cohorts. We sought to establish an international reference data set for the childhood and adolescence period and explore the impact of developmental changes in body dimensions and blood pressure (BP) on carotid wall thickness and elasticity. cIMT, the distensibility coefficient, the incremental modulus of elasticity, and the stiffness index β were assessed in 1155 children aged 6 to 18 years and sex-specific reference charts normalized to age or height were constructed from 1051 nonobese and nonhypertensive children. The role of body dimensions, BP, and family history, as well as the association between cIMT and distensibility, was investigated. cIMT increased and distensibility decreased with age, height, body mass index, and BP. A significant sex difference was apparent from the age of 15 years. Age- and height-normalized cIMT and distensibility values differed in children who are short or tall for their age. By stepwise multivariate analysis, standardized systolic BP and body mass index were independently positively associated with cIMT SD scores (SDS). Systolic BP SDS independently predicted all distensibility measures. Distensibility coefficient SDS was negatively and β SDS positively associated with cIMT SDS, whereas incremental modulus of elasticity was independent of cIMT. Morphological and functional aspects of the common carotid artery are particularly influenced by age, body dimensions, and BP. The reference charts established in this study allow to accurately compare vascular phenotypes of children with chronic conditions with those of healthy children.
In patients with beta-thalassemia major, the most important cause of mortality and morbidity is organ failure due to deposits of iron. In this study, the nature of the kidney injury and possible pathogenetic factors were investigated. Seventy children with beta-thalassemia major and 14 age and sex-matched healthy children were involved in the study. Blood and timed urine samples were obtained for hematological and biochemical tests. The mean values of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, serum sodium, urine osmolality, fractional excretion of sodium, potassium, and uric acid were not statistically different between the groups. Serum levels of potassium, phosphorus, and uric acid and the urine volume, high urinary protein to creatinine (UP/Cr), urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase to creatinine (UNAG/Cr), and urinary malondialdehyde to creatinine, (UMDA/Cr) and the tubular phosphate reabsorption (TRP) values were statistically different between two groups (P<0.05). Increased serum levels of potassium, phosphorus, and uric acid in the patient group were attributed to the rapid erythrocyte turnover. The presence of high UP/cr, UNAG/Cr and UMDA/Cr ratios shows that in these patients with proximal renal tubular damage may be secondary to oxidative lipid peroxidation mediated by the iron overload.
Hereditary defects of coenzyme Q 10 biosynthesis cause steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) as part of multiorgan involvement but may also contribute to isolated SRNS. Here, we report 26 patients from 12 families with recessive mutations in ADCK4. Mutation detection rate was 1.9% among 534 consecutively screened cases. Patients with ADCK4 mutations showed a largely renal-limited phenotype, with three subjects exhibiting occasional seizures, one subject exhibiting mild mental retardation, and one subject exhibiting retinitis pigmentosa. ADCK4 nephropathy presented during adolescence (median age, 14.1 years) with nephrotic-range proteinuria in 44% of patients and advanced CKD in 46% of patients at time of diagnosis. Renal biopsy specimens uniformly showed FSGS. Whereas 47% and 36% of patients with mutations in WT1 and NPHS2, respectively, progressed to ESRD before 10 years of age, ESRD occurred almost exclusively in the second decade of life in ADCK4 nephropathy. However, CKD progressed much faster during adolescence in ADCK4 than in WT1 and NPHS2 nephropathy, resulting in similar cumulative ESRD rates (.85% for each disorder) in the third decade of life. In conclusion, ADCK4-related glomerulopathy is an important novel differential diagnosis in adolescents with SRNS/FSGS and/or CKD of unknown origin.
Background and objectives: Children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at high risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A systemic arteriopathy and cardiomyopathy has been characterized in pediatric dialysis patients by the presence of morphologic and functional abnormalities.Design, setting, participants, & measurements: The Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Children with CKD (4C) Study is a multicenter, prospective, observational study aiming to recruit more than 600 children, aged 6 to 17 years, with initial GFR of 10 to 45 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 . The prevalence, degree, and progression of cardiovascular comorbidity as well as its association with CKD progression will be explored through longitudinal follow-up. The morphology and function of the heart and large arteries will be monitored by sensitive noninvasive methods and compared with aged-matched healthy controls. Multiple clinical, anthropometric, biochemical, and pharmacologic risk factors will be monitored prospectively and related to the cardiovascular status. A whole-genome association study will be performed to identify common genetic variants associated with progression of cardiovascular alterations and/or renal failure. Monitoring will be continued as patients reach end-stage renal disease and undergo different renal replacement therapies.Results: While cardiovascular morbidity in adults is related to older age and additional risk factor load (e.g., diabetes), the role of CKD-specific factors in the initiation and progression of cardiac and vascular disease are likely to be characterized with greater sensitivity in the pediatric age group.Conclusions: The 4C study is expected to provide innovative insight into cardiovascular and renal disease progression in CKD.
This study defines reference values for PWV captured by the Vicorder device in children and adolescents and reveals associations with potential cardiovascular risk factors in a healthy population. Gender-specific percentiles for age/height will allow for the assessment of pediatric cohorts using this oscillometric method.
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